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racter: a History

The name of the program is short for raconteur. The sophistication claimed for the program was likely exaggerated, as could be seen by investigation of the template system of text generation.

Moreover, template processing is sometimes included as a sub-feature of software packages like text editors, IDEs and relational database management systems.

Text editors for professional users can edit files of arbitrary sizes, such as log files or unusually large texts, such as an entire dictionary placed in a single file. Simpler text editors may just read files into the computer's main memory.

An example of a text editor, Leafpad

Most modern operating systems employ a method of extending RAM capacity, known as "virtual memory". A portion of the computer's hard drive is set aside for a paging file or a scratch partition, and the combination of physical RAM and the paging file form the system's total memory.

In modern drives there is one head for each magnetic platter surface on the spindle, mounted on a common arm. An actuator arm (or access arm) moves the heads on an arc (roughly radially) across the platters as they spin, allowing each head to access almost the entire surface of the platter as it spins. The arm is moved using a voice coil actuator or in some older designs a stepper motor.

Two Western Digital VelociRaptor 1 TB SATA 10,000 rpm 3.5-inch HDDs

A unipolar stepper motor has one winding with center tap per phase.

In electronics, a center tap is a contact made to a point halfway along a winding of a transformer or inductor, or along the element of a resistor or a potentiometer.

The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications.

where R is resistance, A and B are constants, and T is absolute temperature (K). The constant B is related to the energies required to form and move the charge carriers responsible for electrical conduction – hence, as the value of B increases, the material becomes insulating.

Free carrier concentration is the concentration of free carriers in a doped semiconductor.

Band diagram of PN junction operation in forward bias mode showing reducing depletion width. Both p and n junctions are doped at a 1×1015/cm3 doping level, leading to built-in potential of ~0.59 V. Reducing depletion width can be inferred from the shrinking charge profile, as fewer dopants are exposed with increasing forward bias.[5]

An extrinsic semiconductor is a semiconductor that has been doped, that is, into which a doping agent has been introduced, giving it different electrical properties than the intrinsic (pure) semiconductor.

In an intrinsic semiconductor such as silicon at temperatures above absolute zero, there will be some electrons which are excited across the band gap into the conduction band and which can support current flow.

Most familiar systems cannot achieve negative temperatures because adding energy always increases their entropy.

Absolute zero is defined to be −273.15°C, or 0 K.

The observable universe is one causal patch of a much larger unobservable universe; there are parts of the universe that cannot communicate with us yet.

If the universe is finite but unbounded, it is also possible that the universe is smaller than the observable universe. In this case, what we take to be very distant galaxies may actually be duplicate images of nearby galaxies, formed by light that has circumnavigated the universe. It is difficult to test this hypothesis experimentally because different images of a galaxy would show different eras in its history, and consequently might appear quite different. Bielewicz et al. claims to establish a lower bound of 27.9 gigaparsecs (91 billion light-years) on the diameter of the last scattering surface (since this is only a lower bound, the paper leaves open the possibility that the whole universe is much larger, even infinite). This value is based on matching-circle analysis of the WMAP 7 year data.

The WMAP objective is to measure the temperature differences in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation.

Additional ground-based instruments such as the South Pole Telescope in Antarctica and the proposed Clover Project, Atacama Cosmology Telescope and the QUIET telescope in Chile will provide additional data not available from satellite observations, possibly including the B-mode polarization.

Comparison of CMB results from COBE, WMAP and Planck – March 21, 2013.

The End.