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Why 2014 Was the Year of Boal

The Hofgarten (Court Garden) is a garden in the center of Munich, Germany, located between the Residenz and the Englischer Garten.

The British gained Acadia by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.

Also in the 19th century, Boal saw the birth of one of its most distinguished figures, Bernardo Acevedo y Huelves, whose name was later given to the municipal library.

Building of the elementary school "Escuelas Graduadas".

In addition, Spain ceded Gibraltar and Minorca to Great Britain and agreed to give to the British the Asiento, a valuable monopoly slave-trading contract.

Two large baroque palaces in Nymphenburg and Oberschleissheim are reminders of Bavaria's royal past.

A third Havana is that of the more affluent residential and industrial districts that spread out mostly to the west. Among these is Marianao, one of the newer parts of the city, dating mainly from the 1920s.

Oberschleißheim is a municipality in the district of Munich, in Bavaria, Germany.

Escaped slaves formed Maroon communities which played an important role in the histories of Brazil and other countries such as Suriname, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Jamaica.

Marianao is one of the 15 municipalities or boroughs (municipios in Spanish) in the city of Havana, Cuba.

The settlement was invaded by seven Dutch ships (from the Zeeland region), led by Abraham Crijnssen, on 26 February 1667.

Vlissingen (vs, vss) – Middelburg (mdb, arn) – Goes (gs) – Kapelle (bzl) – Reimerswaal (krg, kbd, rb) – connecting to Bergen op Zoom (bgn) (Noord-Brabant).

Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.

Morro Castle appears in Richard Henry Dana's account of his travel to Cuba, To Cuba and Back (1859).

The Germany national handball team is the national handball team of Germany.

Dirk Nowitzki

In 1853 Dana represented

Of economic importance is BrabantStad, a partnership between the municipalities of Breda, Eindhoven, Helmond, 's-Hertogenbosch and Tilburg and the province of North Brabant.

Map of North Brabant (2012)

The bow is designed to reduce the resistance of the hull cutting through water and should be tall enough to prevent water from easily washing over the top of it.

Several types of bows

Of all the money that goes to research and development in the Netherlands, one third is spent in Eindhoven.

Dagur Valdimar Sigurðsson (born 3 April 1973 in Reykjavík) is a retired handball player who competed in the 2004 Summer Olympics. He now works as a coach and is currently the head coach for German Bundesliga side Füchse Berlin, who he lead to winning the 2014 DHB Cup.

Sigurðsson as head coach of Austria in 2010.

The equation for viscous resistance or linear drag is appropriate for objects or particles moving through a fluid at relatively slow speeds where there is no turbulence (i.e. low Reynolds number, ). Note that purely laminar flow only exists up to Re = 0.1 under this definition.

The season has 36 game days (or weeks) and is played as a Round-robin tournament without playoffs or a final.

The Moody diagram, which describes the Darcy–Weisbach friction factor f as a function of the Reynolds number and relative pipe roughness.

There are several regional and municipal radio stations.

In sports with a large number of competitive matches for season, double round-robins are common. Most association football leagues in the world are organized on a double round-robin basis, in which every team plays all others in its league once at home and once away.

In indirect extrusion, also known as backwards extrusion, the billet and container move together while the die is stationary. The die is held in place by a "stem" which has to be longer than the container length. The maximum length of the extrusion is ultimately dictated by the column strength of the stem.

The major international competition in football is the World Cup, organised by FIFA.

FM radio was invented by Edwin H.

Columns, or at least large structural exterior ones, became much less significant in the architecture of the Middle Ages.

In 1934 Armstrong began working for RCA at the request of the president of RCA, David Sarnoff.

Sarnoff was instrumental in building and established the AM broadcasting radio business which became the preeminent public radio standard for the majority of the 20th century.

Depopulation, deurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages.

Silvio Gazzaniga (Italian pronunciation: ; born 23 January 1921) is an Italian sculptor.

AM radio is broadcast on several frequency bands. The allocation of these bands is governed by the ITU's Radio Regulations and, on the national level, by each country's telecommunications administration (the FCC in the U.S., for example) subject to international agreements.

Monument in Bern, Switzerland. The text reads: "Union Télégraphique Internationale fondée à Paris en 1865 sur l'initiative du gouvernement français. Érigé par décision de l'Union Télégraphique prise à la conférence internationale de Lisbonne en 1908." (In English: "International Telegraph Union founded at Paris in 1865 on the initiative of the French government. [This monument] erected by a decision of the Telegraph Union made at the international conference at Lisbon in 1908.")

The effects of a declining population can be adverse for an economy which has borrowed extensively for repayment by younger generations.

The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions starting in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spreading throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world.

Rome, a settlement around a ford on the river Tiber conventionally founded in 753 BC, grew over the course of centuries into a massive empire, stretching from Britain to the borders of Persia, and engulfing the whole Mediterranean basin, in which Greek and Roman (and many other) cultures merged into a unique civilisation.

Humans' first means of transport were walking and swimming. The domestication of animals introduces a new way to lay the burden of transport on more powerful creatures, allowing heavier loads to be hauled, or humans to ride the animals for higher speed and duration.

Kofi Annan was born in the Kofandros section of Kumasi in the Gold Coast on 8 April 1938.

Under Augustus's reign, Roman literature grew steadily in the Golden Age of Latin Literature.

Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus. The yellow legend represents the extent of the Republic in 31 BC, the shades of green represent gradually conquered territories under the reign of Augustus, and pink areas on the map represent client states; however, areas under Roman control shown here were subject to change even during Augustus' reign, especially in Germania.

Number (6), while it does apply to most domesticated species, also has exceptions, most notably in the domestic cat and ferret, which are both descended from strictly solitary wild ancestors but which tolerate and even seek out social interaction in their domestic forms.

A herd of Pryor Mustangs

Prempeh College has produced the most doctors in Ghana.

Prempeh College Panoramic view

Ferrets are an important experimental animal model for human influenza, and have been used to study the 2009 H1N1 (swine flu) virus. Smith, Andrews, Laidlaw (1933) inoculated ferrets intra-nasally with human naso-pharyngeal washes, which produced a form of influenza that spread to other cage mates.

The two classes of antiviral drugs used against influenza are neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir) and M2 protein inhibitors (adamantane derivatives).

On 6 March 1957, the Kingdom of Ashanti entered a state union with Ghana, the Northern Territories, the Gold Coast Crown Colony and the British Mandate of Togoland to form the modern state of Ghana.

Ainsworth died on 4 April 1743, at the age of 77. He was buried at St Matthias Old Church, Poplar, and an inscription in Latin verse, written by himself, was placed over his remains and those of his wife.

Common side effects include nausea and vomiting.

In 1627 the East India Company (EIC) purchased a house in Poplar High Street to be used as a hospital for disabled seamen. In 1618 a corrupt jeweller, Hugh Greete, had been sent back from India for stealing stones.

Intense vomiting in ayahuasca ceremonies is a common phenomenon.

In an incorporating union a new state is created, the former states being entirely dissolved into the new state (albeit that some aspects may be preserved; see below "Preservation of interests").

Lord Durham was widely regarded as one of the most important thinkers in the history of the British Empire's constitutional evolution.

Much of Indian architecture, including the Taj Mahal, other works of Mughal architecture, and South Indian architecture, blends ancient local traditions with imported styles. Vernacular architecture is also highly regional in it flavours.

Both physical and verbal components of a ceremony may become part of a liturgy.

Liturgy (Greek: λειτουργία) is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group, according to its particular beliefs, customs and traditions.

Political boundaries drawn by the British did not always reflect homogeneous ethnicities or religions, contributing to conflicts in formerly colonised areas. The British Empire was also responsible for large migrations of peoples. Millions left the British Isles, with the founding settler populations of the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand coming mainly from Britain and Ireland. Tensions remain between the white settler populations of these countries and their indigenous minorities, and between white settler minorities and indigenous majorities in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Settlers in Ireland from Great Britain have left their mark in the form of divided nationalist and unionist communities in Northern Ireland.

No evidence exists for claims that describe, often in horrific detail, the deaths, dismemberments and mutilations which Shah Jahan supposedly inflicted on various architects and craftsmen associated with the tomb. Some stories claim that those involved in construction signed contracts committing themselves to have no part in any similar design. Similar claims are made for many famous buildings. No evidence exists for claims that Lord William Bentinck, governor-general of India in the 1830s, supposedly planned to demolish the Taj Mahal and auction off the marble.

The Greek language holds an important place in the histories of Europe, the more loosely defined Western world, and Christianity; the canon of ancient Greek literature includes works of monumental importance and influence for the future Western canon such as the epic poems Iliad and Odyssey.

In 1136, the rival of Anacletus, Pope Innocent II, convinced Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor to attack the Kingdom of Sicily with help from the Byzantine Emperor John II Comnenus.

The Irish language (Irish: an Ghaeilge), or Gaelic, is a native language of the island of Ireland. It was spoken predominantly throughout what is now Northern Ireland before the Ulster Plantations in the 17th century and most place names in Northern Ireland are anglicised versions of a Gaelic name.

On 22 July 1139, at Galluccio, Roger II's son Roger III, Duke of Apulia, ambushed the papal troops with a thousand knights and captured Innocent.

At Galluccio in 1139, Roger III, Duke of Apulia ambushed Pope Innocent II and his light body of troops with only a thousand knights.

The Middle Ages brought about major changes within the church. Pope Gregory the Great dramatically reformed ecclesiastical structure and administration. In the early 8th century, iconoclasm became a divisive issue, when it was sponsored by the Byzantine emperors.

The anglicisation of a personal name now usually depends on the preferences of the bearer. Name changes are less common today for Europeans emigrating to the United States than they are for people originating in East Asian countries (except for Japan, which no longer has large-scale emigration).

In 1148, barely thirty, Duke Roger died an unknown death in an unknown location. He was mourned by the Arab poet Abu ed-Daw, who said, "the arms of the brave have fallen .

Robert fled to Pisa, where he gathered a navy and made war against Roger in Sicily, but it was a stalemate.

Several Hindu temples have been destroyed in Pakistan. A notable incident was the destruction of the Ramna Kali Mandir in former East Pakistan.

East Pakistan's Armed Forces, under the military administrations of Major-General Muzaffaruddin and Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, used an excessive amount of show of military force to curb the uprising in the province.

Japan ranks 27th of 189 countries in the 2014 Ease of doing business index and has one of the smallest tax revenues of the developed world.

The great expansion in the Mediterranean and the prominence of the merchant class urged a modification in the city's institutes.

Hypothetical map of Pisa in the 5th century AD

The ease of doing business index is an index created by the World Bank Group. Higher rankings (a low numerical value) indicate better, usually simpler, regulations for businesses and stronger protections of property rights.

1969 uprising in East Pakistan (ঊনসত্তরের গণঅভ্যুত্থান) was a democratic political movement in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) that took place in 1969.

The World Bank Institute is the capacity development branch of the World Bank, providing learning and other capacity-building programs to member countries.

WBI provides learning programs, most of which can be delivered face-to-face or via an e-learning platform.

These alternative terms are all linguistically more restrictive than "educational technology" in that they refer to the use of modern tools, such as computers, digital technology, electronic media, networked digital devices and associated software and courseware with learning scenarios, worksheets and interactive exercises that facilitate learning.

The noticeable uniformity in the size of houses at Emporeio leads some scholars to believe that there may have been little social distinction during the Neolithic era on the island.

Bupalus and Athenis, sons of Archermus

In the British Empire, a political officer or political agent was an officer of the imperial civil administration, as opposed to the military administration, usually operating outside imperial territory.

The Igbo Nation in West Africa is alleged to be an acephalous or egalitarian society.

Design of e-learning platforms to enable access has received attention from several directions, including the World Wide Web Consortium's Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI).

Military administration identifies both the techniques and systems used by military departments, agencies, and Armed Services involved in the management of the armed forces.

Fields that study the general properties of systems include systems science, systems theory, systems modeling, systems engineering, cybernetics, dynamical systems, thermodynamics, complex systems, system analysis and design and systems architecture.

The Consortium is jointly administered by the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL, located in Stata Center) in the USA, the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics (ERCIM) (in Sophia Antipolis, France), Keio University (in Japan) and Beihang University (in China).

The ancient Igbo religion and traditions are known as Odinani. In Igbo mythology, which is part of their ancient religion, the supreme God is called Chukwu ("great spirit"); Chukwu created the world and everything in it and is associated with all things on Earth.

Those researchers who did not join the smaller AI Lab formed the Laboratory for Computer Science and continued their research into operating systems, programming languages, distributed systems, and the theory of computation.

In the traditional Igbo spiritual belief system and Igbo mythology, Chukwu is the infinitely powerful, undefinable, supreme deity encompassing everything in space and space itself.

Pierre Perrot claims that the term thermodynamics was coined by James Joule in 1858 to designate the science of relations between heat and power. Joule, however, never used that term, but did use the term perfect thermo-dynamic engine in reference to Thomson’s 1849 phraseology,:545 and Thomson's note on Joules' 1851 paper On the Air-Engine.

Distributed programming typically falls into one of several basic architectures or categories: client–server, 3-tier architecture, n-tier architecture, distributed objects, loose coupling, or tight coupling.

Kinetics is the science of motion. Joule was a pupil of Dalton and it is no surprise that he had learned a firm belief in the atomic theory, even though there were many scientists of his time who were still skeptical.

The Igbo believe in the concept of Ofo and Ogu, which is like the law of retributive justice.

That same year,

Retributive justice is a theory of justice that considers punishment, if proportionate, to be the best response to crime.

The Talmud interprets the verses referring to "an eye for an eye" and similar expressions as mandating monetary compensation in tort cases and argues against the interpretations by Sadducees that the Bible verses refer to physical retaliation in kind, using the argument that such an interpretation would be inapplicable to blind or eyeless offenders.

The client–server model of computing is a distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients. Often clients and servers communicate over a computer network on separate hardware, but both client and server may reside in the same system.

Protium, the most common isotope of hydrogen, consists of one proton and one electron (it has no neutrons). The term "hydrogen ion" (H+) implies that that H-atom has lost its one electron, causing only a proton to remain. Thus, in chemistry, the terms "proton" and "hydrogen ion" (for the protium isotope) are used synonymously

The rise of Reform Judaism during the 19th century saw more questioning of the authority of the Talmud.

The preceding description of quantum field theory follows the spirit in which most physicists approach the subject.

Other commonly used measures are the total number of bits transmitted in the network (cf. communication complexity).

Nobel laureate Sir Joseph Rotblat has suggested that physicists going into employment in scientific research should honour a Hippocratic Oath for Scientists.

Isaac Newton was a revolutionary figure in the development of modern physics as an exact science.

Although North American Reform, UK Reform, UK Liberal Judaism and Israeli Progressive Judaism all share an intellectual heritage, they occupy different positions on the non-orthodox spectrum. The North American Reform movement and UK Liberal Judaism are situated at the more radical end. The North American Conservative movement and Masorti Judaism occupy the more conservative end of the non-orthodox Judaisms, and are not regarded as forms of Reform Judaism at all.

By the 1990s Conservative Judaism continued to flourish, yet dichotomies of practice and belief, which had been present for years, began to formulate. After a substantial gift from Los Angeles philanthropist Ruth Ziegler, a new rabbinical school was formed at the American Jewish University (then University of Judaism) in Bel Air, California.

Jewish Theological Seminary

Returning to the previous example of EQ, if certainty is not required, Alice and Bob can check for equality using only O(log n) messages. Consider the following protocol: Assume that Alice and Bob both have access to the same random string . Alice computes and sends this bit (call it b) to Bob. (The is the dot product in GF(2).) Then Bob compares b to .

The Lieber School of Graduate Studies offers programs in Nonprofit Management and Jewish Communal Studies. Students may earn a Master of Business Administration degree in Nonprofit Management, or students who have already earned a Master of Arts degree in some other field may earn an M.A.

Also in 1939, he was invited to study in Paris (through Polish connections with Marie Curie) and at the University of Liverpool under James Chadwick, winner of the Nobel Prize for discovering the neutron.

The set of non-zero elements in GF(q) is an Abelian group under the multiplication, of order q – 1.

Many large abelian groups possess a natural topology, which turns them into topological groups.

In the Netherlands, the Master of Arts and the Master of Science degrees were introduced in 2002.

Geometric topology is a branch of topology that primarily focuses on low-dimensional manifolds (i.e. dimensions 2,3 and 4) and their interaction with geometry, but it also includes some higher-dimensional topology. Some examples of topics in geometric topology are orientability, handle decompositions, local flatness, and the planar and higher-dimensional Schönflies theorem.

The Seven Bridges of Königsberg was a problem solved by Euler.

In mathematics, orientability is a property of surfaces in Euclidean space that measures whether it is possible to make a consistent choice of surface normal vector at every point.

The Netherlands has one of the oldest standing armies in Europe; it was first established as such by Maurice of Nassau.

The origins of Warsaw University of Technology date back to 1826 when engineering education was begun in Warsaw Institute of Technology.

Groups SO(n) are well-studied for n ≤ 4. There are no non-trivial rotations in 0- and 1-spaces. Rotations of a Euclidean plane (n = 2) are parametrized by the angle (modulo 1 turn). Rotations of a 3-space are parametrized with axis and angle, whereas a rotation of a 4-space is a superposition of two 2-dimensional rotations around perpendicular planes.

Maurice never married but was the father of illegitimate children by Margaretha van Mechelen (including Willem of Nassau, lord of the Lek and Louis of Nassau, lord of den Lek and Beverweerd) and Anna van de Kelder.

Maria of Nassau, (1556–1616), full sister of Philip William, Prince of Orange, half-sister of Maurice of Nassau

Modern medicine can replace several of the body's functions through the use of artificial organs and can significantly alter the function of the human body through artificial devices such as, for example, brain implants and pacemakers. The fields of bionics and medical bionics are dedicated to the study of synthetic implants pertaining to natural systems.

Though Maurice refused to marry her (probably because she was a Catholic and only from the minor nobility), he did state his intent to do so from his death bed (and to legitimise and marry off their children). This would threaten his half-brother Frederick Henry's place in the succession and so Frederick Henry summoned Amalia of Solms-Braunfels and married her a few days before Maurice's death.

Lotus leaf surface, rendered: microscopic view

is known as the generalized force associated with the virtual displacement δq.

On Frederick Henry's death, he was buried with great pomp beside his father and brother at Delft. The treaty of Munster, ending the long struggle between the Dutch and the Spaniards, was not actually signed until 30 January 1648, the illness and death of the stadtholder having caused a delay in the negotiations.

Gartered arms of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange

D'Alembert formulated the dynamics of a particle as the equilibrium of the applied forces with an inertia force (apparent force), called D'Alembert's principle.

An original copy of the treaty is held by the Rijksarchief (Dutch national archives) in The Hague.

To illustrate the concept of d'Alembert's principle, let's use a simple model with a weight , suspended from a wire. The weight is subjected to a gravitational force, , and a tension force in the wire. The mass accelerates upward with an acceleration . Newton's Second Law becomes or .

In 1948 The Hague Congress was held with 750 delegates from 26 European countries, providing them with the opportunity to discuss ideas about the development of the European Union.

Catchment factors are: topography, shape, size, soil type, and land use (paved or roofed areas).

Animation of Latoriţa River drainage basin, Romania.

Newton's laws are applied to objects which are idealised as single point masses, in the sense that the size and shape of the object's body are neglected to focus on its motion more easily. This can be done when the object is small compared to the distances involved in its analysis, or the deformation and rotation of the body are of no importance.

There are two methods for analysing the deformation of a continuum. One description is made in terms of the material or referential coordinates, called material description or Lagrangian description.

Figure 1. Motion of a continuum body.

Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a formally constituted legal body or to a political leader to deal with and make pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility.

In continuum mechanics generally for a heterogeneous material, RVE can be considered as a volume V that represents a composite statistically, i.e., volume that effectively includes a sampling of all microstructural heterogeneities (grains, inclusions, voids, fibers, etc.) that occur in the composite.

Public choice theory involves the use of modern economic tools to study problems that are traditionally in the province of political science.

In 2009 the Polish Catholic Church consisted of 80 parishes with 111 priests. A priest must be male, a graduate of the Christian Academy of Theology in Warsaw specialising in Old-Catholic Theology, and a graduate of the Higher Clerical Seminary of the Polish Catholic Church in Warsaw.

where are the coordinate vectors in some frame of reference chosen for the problem (See figure 1).

Figure 2. Motion of a continuum body.

Let P4 be the space of all the algebraic polynomials in degree less than 4 (i.e.

Public transport in Warsaw includes buses, trams (streetcars), Metro, light rail Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa line, urban railway Szybka Kolej Miejska, regional rail Koleje Mazowieckie (Mazovian Railways), and bicycle sharing systems (Veturilo and Bemowo Bike).

Szybka Kolej Miejska (English: Fast City Rail) is a rail operator providing services in the Warsaw metropolitan area using the national rail network while constituting a part of the city's integrated public transport system organized by the Warsaw Transport Authority.

Generalized recursion theory extends the ideas of recursion theory to computations that are no longer necessarily finite. It includes the study of computability in higher types as well as areas such as hyperarithmetical theory and α-recursion theory.

In recursion theory, α recursion theory is a generalisation of recursion theory to subsets of admissible ordinals .

Public transport modes include city buses, trolleybuses, trams(or light rail) and passenger trains, rapid transit (metro/subways/undergrounds etc) and ferries.

In general, parentheses must be used to indicate the order of evaluation if a non-associative operation appears more than once in an expression.

The BART railcar in the following chart is not generally considered to be a "light rail" vehicle (it is actually a heavy rail vehicle), and is only included for comparison purposes.

Further reducibilities (positive, disjunctive, conjunctive, linear and their weak and bounded versions) are discussed in the article Reduction (recursion theory).

In mathematics and computer programming, the order of operations (sometimes called operator precedence) is a rule used to clarify which procedures should be performed first in a given mathematical expression.

Turing reducibility serves as a dividing line for other reducibility notions because, according to the Church-Turing thesis, it is the most general reducibility relation that is effective.

Mathematics arises from many different kinds of problems. At first these were found in commerce, land measurement, architecture and later astronomy; today, all sciences suggest problems studied by mathematicians, and many problems arise within mathematics itself.

In some cities where subway is used, it refers to the entire system; in others, only to the portions that actually are underground. Naming practices often select one type of placement in a system where several are used; there are many subways with above-ground components, and on the other hand, the Vancouver SkyTrain and Chicago 'L' include underground sections.

In the course of studying the problem, Church and his student Stephen Kleene introduced the notion of λ-definable functions, and they were able to prove that several large classes of functions frequently encountered in number theory were λ-definable. The debate began when Church proposed to Gödel that one should define the "effectively computable" functions as the λ-definable functions.

Astronomy (from the Greek ἀστρονομία from ἄστρον astron, "star" and -νομία -nomia from νόμος nomos, "law" or "culture") means "law of the stars" (or "culture of the stars" depending on the translation).

In lambda calculus, functions are taken to be 'first class values', so functions may be used as the inputs, or be returned as outputs from other functions.

The lowercase lambda, the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet, is used to symbolize the lambda calculus.

It uses a fare system shared with other local transit services, and is policed by the South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority Police Service.

The indicative of past tenses adds (conceptually, at least) a prefix /e-/, called the augment.

The Metro Vancouver Transit Police can trace its origins to the opening of the first SkyTrain line in December 1985, when the line was opened just prior to the 1986 World Exposition on Transportation and Communication (Expo 86).

Particular tense forms need not always carry their basic time-referential meaning in every case. A present tense form may sometimes refer to the past (as in the historical present), a past tense form may sometimes refer to the non-past (as in some English conditional sentences), and so on.

In programming language design, a first-class citizen (also object, entity, or value) in a given programming language is an entity which supports all the operations generally available to other entities.

Expo '86 was opened by Charles, Prince of Wales, Diana, Princess of Wales, and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney on Friday, May 2, 1986.

The term Semantics refers to the meaning of languages, as opposed to their form (syntax).

The Semantic Web refers to the extension of the World Wide Web via embedding added semantic metadata, using semantic data modelling techniques such as Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Web Ontology Language (OWL).

In the mid-1970s, the Prince expressed an interest in serving as Governor-General of Australia; Commander Michael Parker explained: "The idea behind the appointment was for him to put a foot on the ladder of monarchy, or being the future King and start learning the trade." However, because of a combination of nationalist feeling in Australia and the dismissal of the government by the Governor-General in 1975, nothing came of the proposal.

Early attempts to build large ontologies were plagued by a lack of clear definitions. Members of the OWL family have model theoretic formal semantics, and so have strong logical foundations.

Born in Portsmouth, England, Dickens was forced to leave school to work in a factory when his father was thrown into debtors' prison.

Ellen Ternan, 1858.

The above is not an exhaustive list, and new situations may arise. The most notable use of the reserve powers occurred in November, 1975, in the course of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis.

With the appropriation bills approved by both Houses, they were sent over to Yarralumla where Kerr gave them Royal Assent.

Consider the statement: "I am hungry." Though its meaning is constant in time, the truth value of the statement can vary in time. Sometimes the statement is true, and sometimes the statement is false, but the statement is never true and false simultaneously. In a temporal logic, statements can have a truth value which can vary in time. Contrast this with an atemporal logic, which can only discuss statements whose truth value is constant in time. This treatment of truth values over time differentiates temporal logic from computational verb logic.

The governors (or lieutenant governors) of British overseas territories grant or refuse the Royal Assent for territorial legislation.

In CTL*, the temporal operators can be freely mixed.

where ranges over a set of atomic formulas.

The fourteen British Overseas Territories (BOT) are territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom; they do not, however, form part of it. Instead, they are those parts of the former British Empire that have not chosen independence or have voted to remain British territories.

Although all territories of Australia are considered to be fully integrated in its federative system, and the official status of an external territory does not differ largely from that of a mainland territory (except in regards to immigration law), debate remains as to whether the external territories are integral parts of Australia, due to their not being part of Australia in 1901, when its constituent states federated. They are often listed separately for statistical purposes.

Ernst Zermelo (1904) gave a proof that every set could be well-ordered, a result Georg Cantor had been unable to obtain.

Cursons was born on 8 June 1995 in Portsmouth, Hampshire.

(the rest of the quote is finished by the very first quote above). In Men of Mathematics, Eric Temple Bell described Cantor as being "of pure Jewish descent on both sides," although both parents were baptized. In a 1971 article entitled "Towards a Biography of Georg Cantor," the British historian of mathematics Ivor Grattan-Guinness mentions (Annals of Science 27, pp. 345–391, 1971) that he was unable to find evidence of Jewish ancestry.

Around the time of World War II, only three volumes were published over a period of 12 years. From 1956-1958, the Bulletin of the British Society for the History of Science was published as part of the Annals of Science.

The OECD places Australia among the most expensive nations to attend university. There is a state-based system of vocational training, known as TAFE, and many trades conduct apprenticeships for training new tradespeople. About 58% of Australians aged from 25 to 64 have vocational or tertiary qualifications, and the tertiary graduation rate of 49% is the highest among OECD countries.

In Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey-Maturin series, Portsmouth is most often the port from which Captain Jack Aubrey's ships sail, and Portsmouth is mentioned at least once in each of the twenty books of the series.

Individual TAFE institutions (usually with numerous campuses) are known as either colleges or institutes, depending on the state or territory. TAFE colleges are owned, operated and financed by the various state and territory governments.

In 1934 he underwent a brief period of pilot training with the Royal Air Force but this was not successful, and by 1935 he was living in London, where he married his first wife, Elizabeth Jones, in 1936.

The British Journal for the History of Science (aka BJHS) is an international academic journal published quarterly by Cambridge University Press in association with the British Society for the History of Science.

The states and mainland territories of the Commonwealth of Australia combine to make up the world's sixth-largest country by total area.

Map showing the creation of the colonies/states and mainland territories.

The British Society for the History of Science (BSHS) was founded in 1947. It is Britain's largest learned society devoted to the history of science, technology, and medicine.

One of the largest actions undertaken by the RAF during the cold war was the air campaign during the 1982 Falklands War, in which the RAF operated alongside the Fleet Air Arm.

The Handley Page Victor bomber was a strategic bomber of the RAF's V bomber force used to carry both conventional and nuclear bombs.

Continuing improvements led to the furnace and bellows and provided the ability to smelt and forge native metals (naturally occurring in relatively pure form). Gold, copper, silver, and lead, were such early metals.

This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.

Merchant vessels had the civilian Inmarsat uplink, which enabled written telex and voice report transmissions via satellite.

Argentine prisoners of war – Port Stanley.

The primary advantage of a gas forge is ease of use, particularly for a novice. A gas forge is simple to operate compared to coal forges, and the fire produced is clean and consistent. They are less versatile, as the fire cannot be reshaped to accommodate large or unusually shaped pieces;. It is also difficult to heat a small section of a piece. A common misconception is that gas forges cannot produce enough heat to enable forge-welding, but a well designed gas forge is hot enough for any task.

Puerto Rico (since 1952) and the Northern Mariana Islands (since 1986) are non-independent states freely associated with the United States.

The United Nations list of Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories (official document 2002)

Inmarsat's analysis of satellite data in March 2014 showed that Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 flew south from its last known position north of its originating airport in Kuala Lumpur—rather than continuing to fly north, as it was supposed to.

The history of joining metals goes back several millennia. Called forge welding, the earliest examples come from the Bronze and Iron Ages in Europe and the Middle East.

The ancient people of the Marianas raised colonnades of megalithic capped pillars called latte stones upon which they built their homes.

In the Termit region of eastern Niger, its ancient inhabitants are now thought to have become the first iron smelting people in West Africa and among the first in the world at around 1500 BC.

Criticism was also levelled at the delay of the search efforts. On 11 March, three days after the aircraft disappeared, British satellite company Inmarsat had provided officials (or its partner, SITA) with data suggesting the aircraft was nowhere near the areas in the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea being searched at that time; and may have diverted its course through a southern or northern corridor.

In 2009, President Mamadou Tandja decided to organize a constitutional referendum seeking to extend his presidency claiming to respond to the desire of the people of Niger.

Satellite image of Niger

Archaeologists who have worked in the Marianas since the end of World War II have noted a distinct difference between latte stones located along the coast, as opposed to those located inland.

Newer Inmarsat services use an IP technology that features an always-on capability where the users are only charged for the amount of data they send and receive, rather than the length of time they are connected. This applies specifically to BGAN and MPDS.

In April 1999, Maïnassara was assassinated and a new military government led by Major Daouda Malam Wanké took over.

He was born in Yellou, a town near Niger's capital, Niamey.

Yellou is a village in the Kayao Department of Bazèga Province in central Burkina Faso.

German successes in Europe encouraged Japan to increase pressure on European governments in Southeast Asia.

The regions of Burkina Faso are divided into 45 administrative provinces.

The major religions are Islam, and Buddhism, followed by Christianity.

The term "province" is sometimes used to refer to the historic governorates (guberniyas) of Russia.

Sky News correspondent Alex Crawford used BGAN equipment to provide live coverage, from a moving truck, of the news network's coverage of the liberation of Tripoli, Libya, in August 2011.

Steps towards reconciliation on a global level were taken in 1965 by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches mutually revoking the excommunications that marked their Great Schism in 1054; the Anglican Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC) working towards full communion between those churches since 1970; and the Lutheran and Roman Catholic churches signing the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification in 1999 to address conflicts at the root of the Protestant Reformation.

Since 2005, with the relaunch of the TV channel, a greater emphasis has been placed upon interactivity.

Eastern Orthodox today state that this canon of the Council of Ephesus explicitly prohibited modification of the Nicene Creed drawn up by the first Ecumenical Council in 325, the wording of which but, it is claimed, not the substance, had been modified by the second Ecumenical Council, making additions such as "who proceeds from the Father".

For a more detailed discussion of how interactivity has been conceptualized in the human-computer interaction literature, and how the phenomenology of the French philosopher Merleau-Ponty can shed light on the user experience, see (Svanaes 2000).

After a decline in political importance, the town rose in prominence as a religious center with numerous monasteries and a remarkable ratio of churches to citizens: at one point, forty churches for four hundred families. Today, the town operates as an important tourist center, featuring many fine examples of old Russian architecture—most of them churches and monasteries.

Convent of the Intercession

In Husserl's phenomenology, which is quite common, this pair of terms, derived from the Greek nous (mind), designate respectively the real content, noesis, and the ideal content, noema, of an intentional act (an act of consciousness).

Tented churches were popular during the reign of Ivan the Terrible.

About two years after Cyril of Alexandria's death in 444, an aged monk from Constantinople named Eutyches began teaching a subtle variation on the traditional Christology in an attempt (as he described in a letter to Pope Leo I in 448) to stop a new outbreak of Nestorianism.

Averroes came to be regarded even in Europe as "the Commentator" to "the Philosopher", Aristotle, and his study of the questions surrounding the nous were very influential amongst Jewish and Christian philosophers, with some aspects being quite controversial. According to Herbert Davidson, Averroes' doctrine concerning nous can be divided into two periods. In the first, neoplatonic emanationism, not found in the original works of Aristotle, was combined with a naturalistic explanation of the human material intellect. "It also insists on the material intellect's having an active intellect as a direct object of thought and conjoining with the active intellect, notions never expressed in the Aristotelian canon." It was this presentation which Jewish philosophers such as Moses Narboni and Gersonides understood to be Averroes'.

Many (but not all) Orthodox seminaries are attached to monasteries, combining academic preparation for ordination with participation in the community's life of prayer, and hopefully benefiting from the example and wise counsel of the monks.

Five Mahavratas of Jain ascetics

In 1551 the tsar sent his envoy to the Nogai Horde and they promised to maintain neutrality during the impending war.

Some of his beliefs were well wide of the truth, such as his belief that the Milky Way was on the sphere of the fixed stars and shines by the reflected light of the Sun.

In Medieval Sōtō Zen, a tradition of posthumous ordination was developed to give the laity access to Zen funeral rites.

Eastern Orthodox subdeacon being ordained to the diaconate. The bishop has placed his omophorion and right hand on the head of the candidate and is reading the Prayer of Cheirotonia.

The Nogais north of the Black Sea were nominally subject to the Crimean Khanate rather than the Nogai Bey.

The Black Sea is connected to the World Ocean by a chain of two shallow straits, the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus.

360-degree panorama view of the Milky Way Galaxy (an assembled mosaic of photographs).

During the Northern Song (960-1127) the Caodong was not successful in the social elite.

Like the Bosphorus, it separates Europe (the Gallipoli peninsula) from the mainland of Asia (Anatolia).

Kepler-32 is an M1V dwarf-type star located 1301.1 light years from Earth, in the constellation of Cygnus.

The Hittites adopted the cuneiform written script, invented in Mesopotamia.

In recent years, amateur astronomers have made some notable Cygnus discoveries. The "Soap bubble nebula" (PN G75.5+1.7), near the Crescent nebula, was discovered on a digital image by Dave Jurasevich in 2007.

Certain signs to indicate names of gods, countries, cities, vessels, birds, trees, etc., are known as determinatives, and were the Sumerian signs of the terms in question, added as a guide for the reader.

Letter sent by the high-priest Lu'enna to the king of Lagash (maybe Urukagina), informing him of his son's death in combat, c. 2400 B.C.E., found in Telloh (ancient Girsu).

The Soap bubble nebula, or PN G75.5+1.7, is a planetary nebula in the constellation Cygnus, near the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888). It was discovered by amateur astronomer Dave Jurasevich using an Astro-Physics 160 mm refractor telescope who imaged the nebula on June 19, 2007 and on July 6, 2008. The nebula was later independently noted and reported to the International Astronomical Union by Keith.

There were also pyramidal tomb structures in the Song era, such as the Song imperial tombs located in Gongxian, Henan province. About 100 km (62 mi) from Gongxian is another Song dynasty tomb at Baisha, which features "elaborate facsimiles in brick of Chinese timber frame construction, from door lintels to pillars and pedestals to bracket sets, that adorn interior walls." The two large chambers of the Baisha tomb also feature conical-shaped roofs. Flanking the avenues leading to these tombs are lines of Song dynasty stone statues of officials, tomb guardians, animals, and mythological creatures.

Some 90% of Chinese characters are determinative-phonetic compounds; the phonetic element and the determinative (called a radical) are combined to form a single glyph.

The distances to planetary nebulae are generally poorly determined. It is possible to determine distances to the nearest planetary nebula by measuring their expansion rates. High resolution observations taken several years apart will show the expansion of the nebula perpendicular to the line of sight, while spectroscopic observations of the Doppler shift will reveal the velocity of expansion in the line of sight.

With a population of approximately 93.6 million, Henan is the third most populous Chinese province after Guangdong and Shandong. It is also the fifth most populous sub-national division in the world.

This is a list of the most populous first-level administrative country subdivisions in the world, in order of population; most estimates are from 2004, some from 2008.

Velocity measurements of blood flow are also used in other fields of medical ultrasonography, such as obstetric ultrasonography and neurology.

Change of wavelength caused by motion of the source

Just as Roman letters have a characteristic shape (lower-case letters mostly occupying the x-height, with ascenders or descenders on some letters), Chinese characters occupy a more or less square area in which the components of every character are written to fit in order to maintain a uniform size and shape, especially with small printed characters in Ming and sans-serif styles.

In utero is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb".

In Chinese versions of Microsoft Windows XP and older, the default interface typefaces are seriffed (MingLiU and SimSun), which is inconsistent with the sans-serif styling use in most other (including East Asian) regions of the product. Starting in Windows Vista, the default interface typefaces in all regions were changed to sans-serif styles, using Microsoft JhengHei in Traditional Chinese environments and Microsoft YaHei in Simplified Chinese environments.

A passage from the Thousand Character Classic in sans-serif typeface. The rightmost line is the original Chinese. The middle and the left lines are transliterations in Japanese kana and Korean Hangul, respectively.

Administrative divisions are conceptually separate from dependent territories, with the former being an integral part of the state and the other being only under some lesser form of control.

In the United Kingdom, the Classical Association encourages the study of antiquity through various means, such as publications and grants.

Latin Bible from 1407

In international law, a sovereign state is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralised government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

A community of people who claim the right of self-determination based on a common ethnicity, history and culture might seek to establish sovereignty over a region, thus creating a nation-state.

However, not all cached pages can be written to as program code is often mapped as read-only or copy-on-write; in the latter case, modifications to code will only be visible to the process itself and will not be written to disk.

The position of the page cache within various layers of the Linux kernel's I/O stack.[1]

Copy-on-write finds its main use in virtual memory operating systems; when a process creates a copy of itself, the pages in memory that might be modified by either the process or its copy are marked copy-on-write.

China covers a large geographic area and uses the concept of "Zhonghua minzu" or Chinese nationality, in the sense of ethnic groups, but it also officially recognizes the majority Han ethnic group which accounts for over 90% of the population, and no fewer than 55 ethnic national minorities.

An early model which governed the allocation of time to programs was called cooperative multitasking.

Notable pre-modern and early-modern English writers include Geoffrey Chaucer (14th century), Thomas Malory (15th century), Sir Thomas More (16th century), John Bunyan (17th century) and John Milton (17th century).

Multiprogramming doesn't give any guarantee that a program will run in a timely manner. Indeed, the very first program may very well run for hours without needing access to a peripheral. As there were no users waiting at an interactive terminal, this was no problem: users handed in a deck of punched cards to an operator, and came back a few hours later for printed results. Multiprogramming greatly reduced wait times when multiple batches were being processed.

The Victorian age witnessed a continuation of Milton's influence, George Eliot and Thomas Hardy being particularly inspired by Milton's poetry and biography.

Systems that treat all CPUs equally are called symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) systems.

Chinese characters have been used as the written script for the Sinitic languages for thousands of years.

A traditional Peking opera being performed Beijing's Forbidden City, showing its classical Chinese architectural style

Her 1872 work Middlemarch has been described by Martin Amis and Julian Barnes as the greatest novel in the English language.

Eliot's grave in Highgate Cemetery

Systems programmers must build support for SMP into the operating system: otherwise, the additional processors remain idle and the system functions as a uniprocessor system.

At the same time, readers have become acquainted with Rosamond's university-educated, restless and irresponsible brother, Fred, who is reluctantly destined for the Church. He is in love with his childhood sweetheart, Mary Garth, a plain, sensible, and forthright young woman who will not accept him until he abandons the Church (in which she knows he has no interest) and settles in a more suitable career. Mary's honesty contributes to Fred's losing a considerable fortune, which was bequeathed to him by the aged and irascible Mr Featherstone, then rescinded by a later will which Featherstone, on his deathbed, begs Mary to destroy. Mary refuses to engage in such an illegal act and begs Featherstone to wait until the morning, when a legal will superseding the other will can be legally drawn up. But Featherstone dies before the morning. Fred, in debt after some injudicious horse-dealing, is forced to take out a loan that is guaranteed by Mary's father, Caleb Garth, to meet his commitments. When Fred cannot pay the loan, Caleb Garth's finances become compromised, since he must pay back the loan himself. This humiliation shocks Fred into reassessing his life, and he resolves to train as a land agent under the forgiving Caleb.

A device driver is a specific type of computer software developed to allow interaction with hardware devices.

Evolution of Unix systems

Singapore underwent three successive rounds of character simplification.

A land agent may also be a real estate agent or broker who specialises in land and farm sales. Land and farm sales differ drastically from sales of houses, therefore there is the need for specialisation.

Virtual devices may also operate in a non-virtualized environment. For example a virtual network adapter is used with a virtual private network, while a virtual disk device is used with iSCSI.

Net listings: Property listings at an agreed-upon net price that the seller wishes to receive with any excess going to the broker as commission are illegal in most, if not all, states.

Every network controller for an IEEE 802 network such as Ethernet, Wi-Fi, or Token Ring, and every FDDI network controller, has a unique 48-bit serial number called a MAC address, which is stored in read-only memory.

The date of the closing is normally also the date when possession of the real estate is transferred from the seller(s) to the buyer(s).

The median age of Singaporean residents is 39.3, and the total fertility rate is estimated to be 0.80 children per woman in 2014, the lowest in the world and well below the 2.1 needed to replace the population. To overcome this problem, the Singapore government has been encouraging foreigners to immigrate to Singapore for the past few decades.

The IEEE 802 family of standards is maintained by the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee (LMSC). The most widely used standards are for the Ethernet family, Token Ring, Wireless LAN, Bridging and Virtual Bridged LANs. An individual Working Group provides the focus for each area.

A temporary transfer of possession is called a bailment.

The TFR (or TPFR—total period fertility rate) is a better index of fertility than the crude birth rate (annual number of births per thousand population) because it is independent of the age structure of the population, but it is a poorer estimate of actual completed family size than the total cohort fertility rate, which is obtained by summing the age-specific fertility rates that actually applied to each cohort as they aged through time.

In problem-solving contexts, the random-word creativity technique is perhaps the simplest method.

Bailment is distinguished from a contract of sale or a gift of property, as it only involves the transfer of possession and not its ownership.

Lewis Hyde remarks in The Gift that Christianity considers the Incarnation and subsequent death of Jesus to be the greatest gift to humankind, and that the Jataka contains a tale of the Buddha in his incarnation as the Wise Hare giving the ultimate alms by offering himself up as a meal for Sakka.

Motivation refers to one’s desire to defend or find substantiation for beliefs (e.g., religious beliefs) that are important to him or her. According to Raymond Nickerson, one can see the consequences of confirmation bias in real life situations, which range in severity from inefficient government policies to genocide. With respect to the latter and most severe ramification of this cognitive barrier, Nickerson argued that those involved in committing genocide of persons accused of witchcraft, an atrocity that occurred from the 1400s to 1600s AD, demonstrated confirmation bias with motivation.

The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of births per 1,000 of a population in a year. The rate of births in a population is calculated in several ways: live births from a universal registration system for births, deaths, and marriages; population counts from a census, and estimation through specialized demographic techniques.

In some prosecutions for witchcraft, torture (permitted by the Roman civil law) apparently took place.

The torture used against accused witches, 1577

The United Kingdom has a series of four national birth cohort studies, the first three spaced apart by 12 years: the 1946 National Survey of Health and Development, the 1958 National Child Development Study, the 1970 British Cohort Study, and the Millennium Cohort Study, begun much more recently in 2000.

Christian apologetics aims to present a rational basis for Christianity.

The MCS is funded mainly by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and various government departments, such as the Department for Children, Schools and Families, the Department of Health (United Kingdom) (DH) and the Department for Work and Pensions (DfWP).

Under the Welsh devolution settlement, specific policy areas are transferred to the Welsh Government rather than reserved to Westminster.

The practical application of Roman law and the era of the European Ius Commune came to an end, when national codifications were made. In 1804, the French civil code came into force.

The concept of human nature being fixed in this way, implied, in other words, that we can define what type of community is always best for people. This argument has remained a central argument in all political, ethical and moral thinking since then, and has become especially controversial since firstly Rousseau's Second Discourse, and secondly, the Theory of Evolution.

The current First Minister is Carwyn Jones, formally appointed by the Queen on 12 May 2011, who appointed ten ministers and deputy ministers.

Even though the Napoleonic Code was not the first civil code and did not represent the whole of his empire, it was one of the most influential.

In 1865, the Code Civil du Bas-Canada (or Civil Code of Lower Canada) was promulgated in Lower Canada (later the Canadian province of Quebec).

Adaptation occurs through the gradual modification of existing structures. Consequently, structures with similar internal organisation may have different functions in related organisms. This is the result of a single ancestral structure being adapted to function in different ways.

Following the announcement of Welsh Labour Leader and First Minister Rhodri Morgan in September 2009 that he would be resigning both posts in December 2009, Jones entered the subsequent election to become his successor, where his opponents were Edwina Hart and Huw Lewis.

From Quebec's musical repertoire, the song A La Claire Fontaine was the anthem of the New France, Patriots and French Canadian, then replaced by O Canada.

In the context of biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different species. A common example of homologous structures in evolutionary biology are the wings of bats and the arms of primates. Evolutionary theory explains the existence of homologous structures adapted to different purposes as the result of descent with modification from a common ancestor.

The Patriote movement was a political movement that existed in Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) from the turning of the 19th century to the Patriote Rebellion of 1837 and 1838 and the subsequent Act of Union of 1840.

In the social sciences, a political movement is a social group which operate together to obtain a political goal, on a local, regional, national, or international scope.

Elected to the National Assembly for Wales in 1999 as a Labour and Co-operative Party candidate to represent Merthyr Tydfil and Rhymney. He has been party Whip in the Assembly, a post he resigned following the resignation of Alun Michael as First Secretary.

According to Charles Horton Cooley (1864–1929), a primary group is a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships.

Sir Wilfrid Le Gros Clark was one of the primatologists who developed the idea of trends in primate evolution, and that the living members of the order could be arranged in an ascending series leading to humans. Commonly used names for groups of primates, for example "prosimians", "monkeys", "lesser apes" and "great apes", reflect this arrangement.

A primary group is typically a small social group whose members share close, personal, enduring relationships.

In semi-free ranging studies, scientists are able to watch how primates might act in the wild but have easier access to them, and the ability to control their environments. Such facilities include the Living Links Center at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center in Georgia and the Elgin Center at Lion Country Safari in Florida.

Aggression is the mark of unsettled dominance order.

Another drive-through zoo known as Lion Country Safari existed in Irvine, California until 1984.

Scientists have for a long time been interested in the relationship between testosterone and aggressive behavior. In most species, males are more aggressive than females. Castration of males usually has a pacifying effect on aggressive behavior in males. In humans, males engage in crime and especially violent crime more than females. The involvement in crime usually rises in the early teens to mid teens which happen at the same time as testosterone levels rise. Research on the relationship between testosterone and aggression is difficult since the only reliable measurement of brain testosterone is by a lumbar puncture which is not done for research purposes.

The lumbar puncture procedure was taken to the United States by Arthur H. Wentworth an assistant professor at the Harvard Medical School, based at Children's Hospital.

Lumbar puncture, early 20th century.

Shawn Green

Children's was founded on July 20, 1869 by Dr. Francis Henry Brown, a Civil War surgeon, who traveled to Europe in 1867 to study the pioneering specialized approach to treating children.

However, on 27 October 1998, Ron Davies abruptly resigned as Secretary of State for Wales after what he called a "moment of madness" on Clapham Common.

Juan José Sepúlveda (1764–1808), one of the sons of Francisco Xavier Sepúlveda (1742–1788), was a progenitor of one of the branches of the prominent Spanish Mexican Sepúlveda family in the early days of Southern California.

The common was converted to parkland under the terms of the Metropolitan Commons Act in 1878.

The Mississippi was opened to Union traffic to the southern border of Tennessee with the taking of Island No.

Map of U.S. showing two kinds of Union states, two phases of secession and territories.

Status of the states, 1861.    States that seceded before April 15, 1861    States that seceded after April 15, 1861    Union states that permitted slavery    Union states that banned slavery    Territories

Southern California's population encompasses eight metropolitan areas, or MSAs: the Los Angeles metropolitan area, consisting of Los Angeles and Orange counties; the Inland Empire, consisting of Riverside and San Bernardino counties; the San Diego metropolitan area; the Bakersfield metropolitan area; the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area; the Santa Barbara metro area; the San Luis Obispo metropolitan area; and the El Centro area.

The Metropolitan Commons Act 1866 (c.122) is an act of the UK Parliament that allowed local authorities within the area of the Metropolitan Police District around London, England to use income from rates to protect and maintain common lands in their areas.

In addition to historical traditions shown by names, there are at least two other measures of a river's identity, one being the largest branch (by water volume), and the other being the longest branch.

London is also home to sizeable Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, and Jewish communities.

While the region as a whole had traditionally leaned more Republican than the rest of California, newer residents are less likely to identify with the Republican party than longer-term residents (36 percent to 42 percent), and the total number of residents identifying with the Democrats (34 percent) now slightly edges over the number identifying with the Republican party (33 percent).

A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river.

The Loboc River in Bohol, Philippines.

One of the most dramatic forms of weather occurs over the oceans: tropical cyclones (also called "typhoons" and "hurricanes" depending upon where the system forms).

Rotating series of maps showing alternate divisions of the oceans

Various ways to divide the World Ocean

As both a statutory agricultural tribe and a designated martial race during the British Raj era that followed the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Sainis had been chiefly engaged in both agriculture and military service since then until recent times.

Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by anti-slavery activists, modernizers, ex-Whigs, and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party quickly became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the briefly popular Know Nothing Party.

Critics of the theory state that the Indian rebellion of 1857 may have played a role in reinforcing the British belief in it. During this event the troops from the Bengal Native Infantry led by sepoy Mangal Pandey mutinied against the British.

The American Party was represented in the 2002 film Gangs of New York, led by William "Bill the Butcher" Cutting (Daniel Day-Lewis), the fictionalized version of real-life Know Nothing leader William Poole.

A sepoy (/ˈsiːpɔɪ/) was formerly the designation given to an Indian soldier.

Galaxies and star clusters can be unstable, if small perturbations in the gravitational potential cause changes in the density that reinforce the original perturbation.

Poole's archenemy, John Morrissey, was an Irish immigrant and enforcer for Tammany Hall.

Compare the gravity at these locations.

Illustration of a mass distribution (grey) with center of mass as the origin of vectors x and r and the point at which the potential is being computed at the tail of vector x.

The initial capital of the revamped Compagnie des Indes Orientales was 15 million livres, divided into shares of 1000 livres apiece. Louis XIV funded the first 3 million livres of investment, against which losses in the first 10 years were to be charged. The initial stock offering quickly sold out, as courtiers of Louis XIV recognized that it was in their interests to support the King’s overseas initiative.

Compare the gravitational potential at some of these locations.

"Mac" or "Mc" means "son". Names that begin with Mac or Mc include Mac Cárthaigh (MacCarthy), Mac Diarmada (MacDermott), Mac Domhnaill (MacDonnell), and Mac Mathghamhna (MacMahon).

Leopoldo O'Donnell, 1st Duke of Tetuan, Grandee of Spain and as the president of the Government of Spain

In mathematics the gravitational potential is also known as the Newtonian potential and is fundamental in the study of potential theory.

MacDonnell, Macdonnell, or McDonnell is a surname of Scottish and Irish origin.

Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles

There is considerable overlap between potential theory and the theory of the Laplace equation. To the extent that it is possible to draw a distinction between these two fields, the difference is more one of emphasis than subject matter and rests on the following distinction: potential theory focuses on the properties of the functions as opposed to the properties of the equation. For example, a result about the singularities of harmonic functions would be said to belong to potential theory whilst a result on how the solution depends on the boundary data would be said to belong to the theory of the Laplace equation.

The earliest written records of Ireland come from classical Greco-Roman geographers.

French is the second most common language in Canada, after English, and both are official languages at the federal level.

In algebraic geometry, a singularity of an algebraic variety is a point of the variety where the tangent space may not be regularly defined.

Based on the above definition, it can be confidently asserted that the "cores" of the Greco-Roman world were Greece, Cyprus, Italy, the Iberian Peninsula, Asia Minor, Gaul (modern France), Syria, Egypt and Africa Proper (Tunisia and Libya).

which is plotted below, crosses itself at the origin (0,0) and the origin is thus a double point of the curve.

Countries such as the Philippines, Jamaica and Nigeria also have millions of native speakers of dialect continua ranging from an English-based creole to a more standard version of English.

In compilers, fixed point computations are used for program analysis, for example data-flow analysis which are often required to do code optimization.

The fixed point iteration xn+1 = cos xn with initial value x1 = -1.

The value domain should be a partial order with finite height (i.e., there are no infinite ascending chains < < ...).

The Italy's three major political parties are the Democratic Party, Forza Italia and the Five Stars Movement.

The spoken variants of Chinese are highly divergent, forming a continuum comparable to that of the Romance languages.

Every poset (and every preorder) may be considered as a category in which every hom-set has at most one element.

In mathematics, a category is an algebraic structure that comprises "objects" that are linked by "arrows".

The Lombards, under King Liutprand, occupied Ravenna in 712, but were forced to return it to the Byzantines.

A famous list of 23 open problems, called "Hilbert's problems", was compiled in 1900 by German mathematician David Hilbert.

The Yangtze River (English pronunciation: /ˈjæŋtsi/ or /ˈjɑːŋtsi/), known in China as the Chang Jiang or Yangzi, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.

Yangtze watershed

The fullest account of Lombard origins, history, and practices is the Historia Langobardorum (History of the Lombards) of Paul the Deacon, written in the 8th century.

Hilbert remained at the University of Königsberg as a Privatdozent (senior lecturer) from 1886 to 1895.

This is a list of rivers in Asia.

Paul's account was largely accepted by subsequent writers, was often continued, and was first printed in Paris in 1514. Among the printed editions of the Latin text, the most authoritative is that edited by Ludwig Konrad Bethmann and Georg Waitz and published in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica.

During the university's last years, the Albertina faculty and the German Student Union after the territorial separation of the Province of East Prussia by the Treaty of Versailles stressed its affiliation with the Reich, pushing the intellectual life towards German nationalism.

Backside of the Collegium Albertinum in Kneiphof, where Kant taught. The quarter was destroyed in World War II.

In 1875 the MGH was established as a more formal institution with headquarters in Berlin.

The German Student Union (German: Deutsche Studentenschaft, abbreviated DSt) from 1919 until 1945, was the merger of the general student committees of all German universities, including Danzig, Austria and the former German universities in Czechoslovakia.

Asia is home to several language families and many language isolates.

Berlin maintains official partnerships with 17 cities. Town twinning between Berlin and other cities began with sister city Los Angeles in 1967.

The Charité university hospital.

It is possible that all oral languages spoken in the world today are related by direct or indirect descent from a single ancestral tongue.

As a result, ruling Austria–Hungary became increasingly difficult in an age of emerging nationalist movements, requiring considerable reliance on an expanded secret police. Yet the government of Austria tried its best to be accommodating in some respects: The Reichsgesetzblatt, publishing the laws and ordinances of Cisleithania, was issued in eight languages; and all national groups were entitled to schools in their own language and to the use of their mother tongue at state offices, for example.

The Austria national football team play at the Ernst-Happel-Stadion in Vienna.

Each crown land had a regional assembly, the Landtag, which enacted laws (Landesgesetze) on matters of regional and mostly minor importance.

Washington has a system of state highways, called State Routes, as well as an extensive ferry system which is the largest in the nation and the third largest in the world.

Prescription, on the other hand, is an attempt to promote particular linguistic usages over others, often favoring a particular dialect or "acrolect".

Since 1466, Prussian Landtag were held in Royal Prussia.

After the Prussian Confederation pledged allegiance to Casimir on 6 March 1454, the Thirteen Years' War ("War of the Cities") begun.

This is a list of state routes in the U.S.

The new Polish army was larger than before, including soldiers from Red Ruthenia, small auxiliary forces of Lithuanian Tatars, and a few mercenaries from Silesia.

If a society is so stratified as to have little to no contact between groups who speak the creole and those who speak the superstrate (dominant) language, a situation of diglossia occurs, rather than a continuum.

The highways in New Zealand were originally designated on a two-tier system, national (SH 1–8) and provincial, with national highways having a higher standard and funding priorities. Now all of them are state highways, and the network consists of SH 1 running the length of both main islands, SH 2–5 and 10–58 in the North Island, and SH 6–8 and 60–99 in the South Island. National and provincial highways are numbered approximately north to south. State Highway 1 runs the length of both islands.

Default U.S. state highway marker

In October 1372 Władysław Opolczyk was unexpectedly deprived of the office of Count palatine.

(H) is usually the written language whereas (L) is the spoken language. In formal situations, (H) is used; in informal situations, (L) is used. One of the earliest known examples is Latin, Classical Latin being the (H) and Vulgar Latin the (L).

South of Timaru, the road again passes through gentle hill country, staying close to the coast but largely out of sight of it. The road veers inland briefly, bypassing Waimate as it reaches the plains around the mouth of the Waitaki River, which it crosses to enter Otago.

The loss of the final m was a process which seems to have begun by the time of the earliest monuments of the Latin language. The epitaph of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, who died around 150 BC, reads taurasia cisauna samnio cepit, which in Classical Latin would be taurāsiam, cisaunam, samnium cēpit ("He captured Taurasia, Cisauna, and Samnium").

Extract of the Oaths of Strasbourg, the earliest French text.

He was the eldest son of Duke Bolko II of Opole by his wife Elisabeth, daughter of Duke Bernard of Świdnica.

From 1877 until 1966, Waimate was served by the Waimate Branch, a branch line railway that connected with the Main South Line some seven kilometres east in Studholme.

Photo of a sunset over the hills to the south of Waimate, taken from near the town centre.

Thanks to his marriage to Elisabeth, daughter of Duke Bernard of Świdnica, Bolko II had a temporary close connection with the Polish King Władysław I the Elbow-high (paternal grandfather of his wife).

At the time of his death Barbatus was the patrician censor of 280 BC.

Many British branch lines were closed as a result of the "Beeching Axe" in the 1960s, although some have been re-opened as heritage railways.

Bernard died on 6 May 1326 and was buried in Grüssau Abbey.

Land formed the most important article of the census, but public land, the possession of which only belonged to a citizen, was excluded as not being Quiritarian property.

Since the Romans used a form of Direct Democracy, citizens, and not elected representatives, voted before each assembly. As such, the citizen-electors had no power, other than the power to cast a vote. Each assembly was presided over by a single Roman Magistrate, and as such, it was the presiding magistrate who made all decisions on matters of procedure and legality. Ultimately, the presiding magistrate's power over the assembly was nearly absolute. The only check on that power came in the form of vetoes handed down by other magistrates, and decisions made by presiding magistrates could also be vetoed by higher-ranking magistrates. In addition, after 493 BC, any decision made by a presiding magistrate, including one concerning the Curiate Assembly, could be vetoed by a magistrate known as a Plebeian Tribune or more popularly called a "Tribune of the Plebs".

The abbety is one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments (Pomnik historii), as designated May 1, 2004, and tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland.

Krzeszów Abbey is located in Poland

Location of Krzeszów Abbey in Poland

The Crown dependencies are possessions of the Crown, as opposed to overseas territories of the UK. They comprise three independently administered jurisdictions: the Channel Islands of Jersey and Guernsey in the English Channel, and the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea.

The institute organizes the European Heritage Days in Poland, as well as conducting research on heritage preservation.

Financial services, such as banking, fund management, and insurance, account for about 37% of GDP. Tourism, manufacturing, and horticulture, mainly tomatoes and cut flowers, especially freesias, have been declining.

In times of military emergency, a Roman Dictator was appointed for a term of six months. Constitutional government dissolved, and the Dictator became the absolute master of the state. The Dictator then appointed a Master of the Horse to serve as his most senior lieutenant. Often the Dictator resigned his office as soon as the matter that caused his appointment was resolved. When the Dictator's term ended, constitutional government was restored.

This idea is popular outside Europe, too, with similar schemes in Canada (since 1974 - Heritage_Day_(Alberta)), the USA, Australia, and other lands, at different times of year.

They can be planted in the fall in USDA Hardiness Zones 9-10 (i.e.

Owing to the moderating effect of the North Atlantic Current on the Irish and British temperate maritime climate, Britain, and Ireland even more so, have milder winters than their northerly position would otherwise afford.

Differences between 1990 USDA hardiness zones and 2006 arborday.org hardiness zones reflect global warming.[citation needed].

The holiday was renamed Simcoe Day in Toronto effective 1969 in honour of the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada and the promulgator of the Act Against Slavery, but a motion at the Ontario Municipal Association to extend the name change across Ontario failed. According to a 2005 proclamation this name continues to apply in the present amalgamated city of Toronto. Civic Holiday is now known by one of a number of local appellations such as Colonel By Day in Ottawa, George Hamilton Day in Hamilton, Joseph Brant Day in Burlington, Founders' Day in Brantford, McLaughlin Day in Oshawa, Alexander Mackenzie Day in Sarnia, James Cockburn Day in Cobourg, Peter Robinson Day in Peterborough, and John Galt Day in Guelph, as well as numerous other names in smaller municipalities.

Once a magistrate's annual term in office expired, he had to wait ten years before serving in that office again. Since this did create problems for some magistrates (in particular, consuls and praetors), these magistrates occasionally had their imperium "prorogued" (prorogare), which allowed them to retain the powers of the office as a Promagistrate.

Cornelia, mother of the future Gracchi tribunes, pointing to her children as her treasures

In keeping with his democratic ideals, Mackenzie refused the offer of a knighthood three times, and was thus the only one of Canada's first eight Prime Ministers not to be knighted. His pride in his working class origins never left him. Once, while touring Fort Henry as prime minister, he asked the soldier accompanying him if he knew the thickness of the wall beside them.

Mackenzie Building at the Royal Military College of Canada

Promagistrates were usually either proquaestors (acting in place of quaestors), propraetors, acting in place of praetors, or proconsuls acting in place of consuls.

In the years immediately following the American Revolution, British-American hostilities was still a concern for the British.

The oceanic climate exists in an arc spreading across the north-western coast of North America from the Alaskan panhandle to northern California, in general the coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest.

The elected praetor was a magistratus curulis, exercised imperium, and consequently was one of the magistratus majores.

Aluminum smelting was once an important part of the region's economy due to the abundance of once-cheap hydroelectric power.

There are multiple definitions of the Pacific Northwest, none definitive. This map shows three possibilities. The shaded area shows the historical Oregon Country and the green line shows the so-called "Cascadia" bioregion (a.k.a. Pacific Northwest bioregion), defined as "the watersheds of rivers that flow into the Pacific Ocean through North America's temperate rainforest zone".[6] A third definition is the labeled states, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, and the province of British Columbia.

The Roman magistrates were elected officials of the Roman Republic. Each Roman magistrate was vested with a degree of power. Dictators had the highest level of power.

During the war, slaves escaped from across New England and the mid-Atlantic area to British-occupied cities, such as New York. The effects of the war were more dramatic in the South. In Virginia the royal governor Lord Dunmore recruited black men into the British forces with the promise of freedom, protection for their families, and land grants.

Dunmore sat as a Scottish representative peer in the House of Lords from 1761 to 1774 and from 1776 to 1790.

Aluminium smelting is the process of extracting aluminium from its oxide, alumina, generally by the Hall-Héroult process.

The Roman Senate passed a senatus consultum authorizing the consuls to nominate a dictator — the sole exception to the Roman legal principles of collegiality (multiple tenants in the same office) and responsibility (legal liability for official actions) — only one man was appointed, and, as the highest magistrate, he was not legally liable for official actions; 24 lictors attended him.

Each member may make no more than one speech on a motion, except that the mover of the motion may make one speech at the beginning of the debate and another at the end. Speeches are not subject to any time limits in the House; however, the House may put an end to a speech by approving a motion "that the noble Lord be no longer heard". It is also possible for the House to end the debate entirely, by approving a motion "that the Question be now put". This procedure is known as Closure, and is extremely rare.

A senatus consultum (Latin - decree of the senate; plural senatus consulta) is a text emanating from the senate in Ancient Rome.

Aluminium oxide catalyses a variety of reactions that are useful industrially. In its largest scale application, aluminium oxide is the catalyst in the Claus process for converting hydrogen sulfide waste gases into elemental sulfur in refineries.

In Canada, cloture is referred to as "closure". Closure in Canada was adopted by the House of Commons in 1913 by Conservative Prime Minister Robert Borden.

Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius, became emperor after his father's death.

Approximately 83% (as of 2004) of ammonia is used as fertilizers either as its salts, solutions or anhydrously. When applied to soil, it helps provide increased yields of crops such as maize and wheat.

The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine

Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield. Canada has around 31,700 large lakes, more than any other country, containing much of the world's fresh water. There are also fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies and the Coast Mountains.

Oil on canvas painting of a tree dominating its rocky landscape during a sunset.

The Jack Pine by Tom Thomson. Oil on canvas, 1916, in the collection of the National Gallery of Canada.

At the urging of his mistress Marcia, Commodus had Cleander beheaded and his son killed.

In VSEPR theory the electron pairs on the oxygen atom in water form the vertices of a tetrahedron with the lone pairs on two of the four vertices.

The Canadian Rockies are subdivided into numerous mountain ranges, structured in two main groupings, the Continental Ranges, which has three main subdivisions, the Front Range, Park Ranges and Kootenay Ranges, and the Northern Rockies which comprise two main groupings, the Hart Ranges and the Muskwa Ranges.

To celebrate the Roman New Year in AD 192, Commodus decided he wanted to make an appearance before the Roman people not from the palace in traditional purple robes, but from the gladiator's barracks, escorted by the rest of the gladiators.

Xenon hexafluoride, which has a regular octahedral geometry despite containing a lone pair.

The Kootenay Ranges, also known as the Western Ranges, are one of the three main subdivisions of the Continental Ranges which comprise the southern half of the Canadian Rockies, the other two subdivisions being the Front Ranges and the Park Ranges (which is the largest of the groupings).

Other diagrams may be more complex than Lewis structures, showing bonds in 3D using various forms such as space-filling diagrams.

The Continental Ranges is a name for a major grouping of mountain ranges in the Rocky Mountains located in eastern British Columbia and western Alberta.

A flask depicting the final phase of the fight between a murmillo (winning) and a thraex.

The Alpide belt includes Indonesia and southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, and ends in the Alps, Spain and Atlas Mountains. The belt also includes other European and Asian mountain ranges.

Space-filling models are also called CPK models after the chemists Robert Corey, Linus Pauling and

A calotte model of cyclohexane C 6H 12. The white spheres represent hydrogen atoms, which surround a ring of carbon atoms (in grey).

A childhood cancer victim, Corey received his undergraduate degree from the University of Pittsburgh, and his Ph.D.

Although Muslim traders first traveled through Southeast Asia early in the Islamic era, the earliest evidence of Islamized populations in Indonesia dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra. Other Indonesian areas gradually adopted Islam, and it was the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century.

Other archaic shrines to the northwest, such as the Umbilicus Urbis and the Vulcanal (Shrine of Vulcan), developed into the Republic's formal Comitium (assembly area).

People who spoke Austronesian languages first arrived in Sumatra around 500 BCE

Austronesian languages expansion map. Periods are based on archeological studies, though the association of the archeological record and linguistic reconstructions is disputed.

Palliative care refers to treatment which attempts to make the person feel better and may or may not be combined with an attempt to treat the cancer.

Roman literature was from its very inception influenced heavily by Greek authors. Some of the earliest works we possess are of historical epics telling the early military history of Rome. As the republic expanded, authors began to produce poetry, comedy, history, and tragedy. Virgil represents the pinnacle of Roman epic poetry.

Bunun was originally spoken in and around Sinyi Township (Xinyi, 信義鄉) in Nantou County (De Busser 2009:63).

Physicians sometimes use the term palliative care in a sense meaning palliative therapies without curative intent, when no cure can be expected (as often happens in late-stage cancers).

After the handover of Taiwan from Japan to the Republic of China on 25 October 1945, the present day area of Nantou County was administered under Taichung County of Taiwan Province.

It is said that the Chiesa della Santa Maria di Piedigrotta was erected by Church authorities to neutralize this adoration and "Christianize" the site.

Taichung County was established on 26 November 1945 following the handover of Taiwan from Japan to the Republic of China.

In November 1943, Chiang Kai-Shek took part in the Cairo Conference in Cairo, Kingdom of Egypt with American, British and Chinese leaders, who firmly advocated that Japan be required to return all of the territory it had annexed into its empire, including Taiwan and the Penghu Islands.

Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with one or more cytotoxic anti-neoplastic drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized regimen.

ΙΧΘΥΣ (Ichthus) is an acronym/acrostic for "Ίησοῦς Χριστός, Θεοῦ Υἱός, Σωτήρ", (Iēsous Christos, Theou Yios, Sōtēr), which translates into English as "Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour".

Northern and extreme eastern parts of Cairo, which include satellite towns, are among the most recent additions to the city, as they developed in the late-20th and early-21st centuries to accommodate the city's rapid growth.

Psalm 145 is an alphabetic acrostic, the initial letter of each verse being the Hebrew alphabet in sequence.

Once a cancer is formed, it usually has genome instability.

Conceptually, satellite cities are miniature metro areas on the fringe of larger ones.

Hitech city, Hyderabad, India.

The "INRI" at the top of the middle cross stands for Iēsus Nazarēnus, Rēx Iūdaeōrum, Latin for "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews" (John 19:3).

Of about 200 neurological and neuromuscular disorders, 15 have a clear link to an inherited or acquired defect in one of the DNA repair pathways or excessive genotoxic oxidative stress. Five of them (xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne's syndrome, trichothiodystrophy, Down's syndrome, and triple-A syndrome) have a defect in the DNA nucleotide excision repair pathway.

A polycentric metropolitan area is one not connected by continuous development or conurbation, which requires urban contiguity.

Holding a population of 7,427,336 as of 2005, the Combined Statistical Area including Greater Boston consists of Boston proper and a collection of distinct but intertwined cities including Providence, Rhode Island, Worcester, Massachusetts, and Manchester, New Hampshire.

Down syndrome can be identified during pregnancy by prenatal screening followed by diagnostic testing, or after birth by direct observation and genetic testing.

Church Slavonic represents a later stage of Old Church Slavonic, and is the continuation of the liturgical tradition introduced by the Thessaloniki brothers Cyril and Methodius in the late 9th century in Nitra, a principal town and religious and scholarly center of Great Moravia (present-day Slovakia), who produced the first Slavic translations of the Scripture and liturgy from Ancient Greek.

An example of Russian Church Slavonic computer typography

On the eastern bank, Amoskeag engineers and architects planned a model company town, founded in 1838 with Elm Street as its main thoroughfare.

Nitra railway station forms part of the railway line between Nové Zámky/Šurany and Prievidza, which passes through Nitra, but is not a main line.

To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision. The term building design professional (or Design professional), by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect, such as architectural technologists and intern architects.

The history of railways in Nitra dates back to the second half of the nineteenth century. Track section Ivanka pri Nitre (Nyitraivánka) - Nitra (Nyitra) was opened in 1876 and connected Nitra (Nyitra) with tracks Šurany (Nagysurány) - Ivanka pri Nitre (Nyitraivánka) and Palárikovo (Tótmegyer) - Šurany (Nagysurány).

Ultrasound of a fetus, which is considered a screening test, can sometimes miss subtle abnormalities. For example, studies show that a detailed 2nd trimester ultrasound, also called a level 2 ultrasound, can detect about 97% of neural tube defects such as spina bifida

Nitra ( pronunciation (help·info); Latin: Nitria; German: Neutra ( pronunciation (help·info)); Hungarian: Nyitra or Nyitria ) is a city in western Slovakia, situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in the valley of the river Nitra.

There is neither a single cause of spina bifida nor any known way to prevent it entirely. However, dietary supplementation with folic acid has been shown to be helpful in reducing the incidence of spina bifida.

Once identification of the underlying problem is established, the specialist can begin sorting through the possible solutions available. Technical support specialists in this group typically handle straightforward and simple problems while "possibly using some kind of knowledge management tool." This includes troubleshooting methods such as verifying physical layer issues, resolving username and password problems, uninstalling/reinstalling basic software applications, verification of proper hardware and software set up, and assistance with navigating around application menus.

German is primarily spoken in Germany (where it is the first language for more than 95% of the population), Austria (89%), Switzerland (65%), the majority of Luxembourg, and Liechtenstein - the latter being the only state with German as the sole official and spoken language.

Folate and folic acid derive their names from the Latin word folium, which means "leaf".

Folate metabolism

In information technology, an application is a computer program designed to help people perform an activity.

OpenOffice.org Writer word processor. OpenOffice.org is a popular example of open source application software.

Liechtenstein is bordered by Switzerland to the west and south and Austria to the east and north.

Looking southward at Vaduz city centre

Compilers are used to translate source code from a programming language into either object code or machine code. Object code needs further processing to become machine code, and machine code is the central processing unit's native code, ready for execution.

The Living Latin movement attempts to teach Latin in the same way that living languages are taught, i.e., as a means of both spoken and written communication.

Latin Bible from 1407

The GNU Project's Binary File Descriptor library (BFD library) provides a common API for the manipulation of object files in a variety of formats.

GNU mascot, by Aurelio A. Heckert[1] (derived from a more detailed version by Etienne Suvasa)[2]

One of its main promoters was the former dean of the University of Nancy (France), Prof.

The predecessor of IRC 501(c)(6) was enacted as part of the Revenue Act of 1913 likely due to a US Chamber of Commerce request for an exemption for nonprofit "civic" and "commercial" organizations, which resulted in IRC 501(c)(4) for nonprofit "civic" organizations and IRC 501(c)(6) for nonprofit "commercially-oriented" organizations.

In the 1950s and 1960s, psychiatrists like Oscar Janiger explored the potential effect of LSD on creativity.

Bottle of LSD from a Swiss clinical trial of LSD for anxiety in cancer patients, c. 2007

The joint session was a spectacular event. A huge crowd gathered and every seat in the House chamber was taken. Newspaper coverage was intense. Wilson spoke only briefly, but made it clear that tariff reform was needed, and that he would not be a party to a repeat of the embarrassment of the thwarted reform of 1894. The burden was clearly on Democratic shoulders because they controlled both houses of Congress for the first time in 18 years.

Saint Louis' Sainte Chapelle represents the French impact on religious architecture.

A substudy within Janiger's research focused specifically on artists and creativity.

Each party elects Senate party leaders.

The Misanthrope was first performed at the Stratford Festival in 1981.

Per 19 U.S.C. § 2191(c)(1), an implementing bill for a fast-track negotiating authority (trade promotion authority) trade agreement submitted by the President is introduced (by request) in the House by the majority leader of the House and (by request) in the Senate by the majority leader of the Senate.

Title 19 of the United States Code outlines the role of customs and duties in the United States Code.

By law, those titles of the United States Code that have not been enacted into positive law are "prima facie evidence" of the law in effect.

Upon graduation, he chose to pursue an acting career, and his first professional role was as a 19-year-old Hamlet at the Crest Theatre in Toronto.

Prima facie is often confused with res ipsa loquitur (literally, "the thing speaks for itself"), the common law doctrine that when the facts make it self-evident that negligence or other responsibility lies with a party, it is not necessary to provide extraneous details, since any reasonable person would immediately find the facts of the case.

The doctrine was not initially welcome in medical malpractice cases. In Gray v. Wright, a seven-inch hemostat was left in Mrs.

From the early 17th century, the play was famous for its ghost and vivid dramatisation of melancholy and insanity, leading to a procession of mad courtiers and ladies in Jacobean and Caroline drama. Though it remained popular with mass audiences, late 17th-century Restoration critics saw Hamlet as primitive and disapproved of its lack of unity and decorum. This view changed drastically in the 18th century, when critics regarded Hamlet as a hero—a pure, brilliant young man thrust into unfortunate circumstances. By the mid-18th century, however, the advent of Gothic literature brought psychological and mystical readings, returning madness and the Ghost to the forefront. Not until the late 18th century did critics and performers begin to view Hamlet as confusing and inconsistent.

The modern hemostat is credited to several persons, the foremost of which is Jules-Émile Péan.

Decorum (from the Latin: "right, proper") was a principle of classical rhetoric, poetry and theatrical theory that was about the fitness or otherwise of a style to a theatrical subject.

Péan was very admired and a follower of hygiene, he disputed the discoveries of Louis Pasteur.

Plato (427-347 BC) famously outlined the differences between true and false rhetoric in a number of dialogues; particularly the Gorgias and Phaedrus dialogues wherein Plato disputes the sophistic notion that the art of persuasion (the sophists' art, which he calls "rhetoric"), can exist independent of the art of dialectic.

In 1857, he moved to Paris as the director of scientific studies at the École Normale Supérieure where he took control from 1858 to 1867 and introduced a series of reforms. The examinations became more rigid, which led to better results, greater competition, and increased prestige. He raised the standard of scientific work, leading to two serious student revolts. In 1862, he was appointed professor of geology, physics, and chemistry at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, the position which held until his resignation in 1867.

The trial of Socrates is the central, unifying event of the great Platonic dialogues. Because of this, Plato's Apology is perhaps the most often read of the dialogues.

Plato's Symposium (Anselm Feuerbach, 1873)

The École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts (ENSBA) is the distinguished National School of Fine Arts in Paris, France.

Plan of the site

Socrates begins by telling the jury that their minds were poisoned by his enemies when they were young and impressionable. He says his reputation for sophistry comes from his enemies, all of whom are envious of him, and malicious. He says they must remain nameless, except for Aristophanes, the comic poet. He later answers the charge that he has corrupted the young by arguing that deliberate corruption is an incoherent idea. Socrates says that all these false accusations began with his obedience to the oracle at Delphi. He tells how Chaerephon went to the Oracle at Delphi, to ask if anyone was wiser than Socrates.

Chaerephon appears in three of Aristophanes' comic plays: The Clouds, The Wasps, and The Birds.

Most modern public museums and art education programs for children in schools can be traced back to this impulse to have art available to everyone. Museums in the United States tend to be gifts from the very rich to the masses (The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, for example, was created by John Taylor Johnston, a railroad executive whose personal art collection seeded the museum.) But despite all this, at least one of the important functions of art in the 21st century remains as a marker of wealth and social status.

The play begins with a strange scene—a large net has been spread over a house, the entry is barricaded and two slaves are sleeping in the street outside. A third man is positioned at the top of an exterior wall with a view into the inner courtyard but he too is asleep. The two slaves wake and we learn from their banter that they are keeping guard over a 'monster'. The man asleep above them is their master and the monster is his father—he has an unusual disease. The two slaves challenge the audience to guess the nature of the disease. Addictions to gambling, drink and good times are suggested but they are all wrong—the father is addicted to the law court: he is a phileliastes (φιληλιαστής) or a "trialophile." We are then told that his name is Philocleon (which suggests that he might be addicted to Cleon) and his son's name is the very opposite of this—Bdelycleon.

The character of Cleon is represented by Aristophanes and Thucydides in a very unfavourable light, justifiable considering he instilled a feeling of mistrust within Athens through a kind of Athenian "McCarthyism" caused by the excessive number of informants he employed to keep a watchful eye on the city.

The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) operates public libraries in Paris, among them the François Mitterrand Library, Richelieu Library, Louvois, Opéra Library, and Arsenal Library. There are three public libraries in the 4th arrondissement.

The Cloisters was a principal project of

Hokusai's The Great Wave off Kanagawa

McCarthyism also attracts controversy purely as a historical issue. Through declassified documents from Soviet archives and Venona project decryptions of coded Soviet messages, it has become known that the Soviet Union engaged in substantial espionage activities in the United States during the 1940s.

Aegean Collapse has also been attributed to the fact that as iron tools became more common, the main justification for the tin trade ended, and that trade network ceased to function as it did formerly. The colonies of the Minoan empire then suffered drought, famine, war, or some combination of those three, and had no access to the distant resources of an empire by which they could easily recover.

The legend that the cross was ultimately made from the Tree of Knowledge was common in the Middle Ages and has similarities to the Holy Grail legend.

There are cups claimed to be the Grail in several churches, for instance in O Cebreiro church in Galicia (Spain) or in the Saint Mary of Valencia Cathedral, which contains an artifact, the Valencia Chalice, supposedly taken by Saint Peter to Rome in the 1st century, and then to Huesca in Spain by Saint Lawrence in the 3rd century.

How at the Castle of Corbin a Maiden Bare in the Sangreal and Foretold the Achievements of Galahad: illustration by Arthur Rackham, 1917

Reference to the chalice is made in 1399, when it was given by the monastery of San Juan de la Peña to king Martin I of Aragon in exchange for a gold cup.

The Valencia Chalice in its chapel in Valencia Cathedral

The most commonly known and studied "bioinorganic" compounds of iron (i.e., iron compounds used in biology) are the heme proteins: examples are hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochrome P450.

The Commission findings regarding government secrecy in the early Cold War period have led to a reevaluation of many public perceptions regarding the period.

The monastery is built beneath a huge rock sometimes associated with the legendary "Monte Pano". The second floor contains a royal pantheon of kings of Aragon and Navarre. The present room, with its marbles and stucco medallions recalling historic battles, is mainly a design built during the administration of Charles III of Spain in 1770.

Myoglobin is a sensitive marker for muscle injury, making it a potential marker for heart attack in patients with chest pain. However, elevated myoglobin has low specificity for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and thus CK-MB, cTnT, ECG, and clinical signs should be taken into account to make the diagnosis.

The Austrians, already fighting the French and Savoyard armies to retain Lombardy, had only limited resources for the defense of Naples, and were divided on how best to oppose the Spanish.

The region can broadly be divided into three areas as regards the productive activity. Milan, where the services sector makes up for 65.3% of the employment; a group of provinces, Varese, Como, Lecco, Bergamo and Brescia, highly industrialised, although in the two latter ones, in the plains, there is also a rich agricultural sector.

The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe (for example, supporting the anti-Communist side in the Greek Civil War) and creating the NATO alliance.

The United States reached the moon in 1969—a milestone in the space race.

Although direct operation of a bicycle and a mounted animal are commonly referred to as riding, such operators are legally considered drivers and are required to obey the rules of the road.

In 1815, it was assigned to the Austrian Empire.

Truman, under the guidance of Dean Acheson, followed up his speech with a series of measures to contain Soviet influence in Europe, including the Marshall Plan, or European Recovery Program, and NATO, a military alliance between the U.S.

The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Italian: Regno Lombardo-Veneto, German: Königreich Lombardo–Venetien), commonly called the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, was a constituent land (crown land) of the Austrian Empire.

Tires vary enormously depending on their intended purpose. Road bicycles use tires 18 to 25 millimeters wide, most often completely smooth, or slick, and inflated to high pressure in order to roll fast on smooth surfaces.

After the following partitions of Poland in 1795 the "royal lands" were directly annexed by the partitioning powers.

These reports provide impetus and direction as agreed upon by the national governments of the member states through their own national political processes and influencers to the NATO administrative and executive organizational entities.

Retrieving the disseized. A 1793 Russian medal in Church Slavonic commemorating the affiliation of Rus' lands held by foreign powers since the Late Middle Ages. It was perceived as the continuation of the century-old process named Gathering of the Russian (Rus') lands

The term road bicycle can also describe any type of bike used primarily on paved roads, in contrast to bikes primarily intended for off-road use, such as mountain bikes.

A political system is a system of politics and government.

Roads are designed and built for primary use by vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

The origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare.

Political views differ on average across nations. A recreation of the Inglehart–Welzel Cultural Map of the World based on the World Values Survey.

A diagram of movement within a roundabout in a country where traffic drives on the right. A roundabout is a type of road junction, or traffic calming device, at which traffic streams circularly around a central island after first yielding to the circulating traffic. Unlike with traffic circles, vehicles on a roundabout have priority over the entering vehicle, parking is not allowed and pedestrians are usually prohibited from the central island.

Road signs in Iceland mainly follow the Vienna Convention, but use a variant of the colour scheme and minor design changes similar to the signs in Sweden.

Cultural and national homogenization figured prominently in the rise of the modern state system. Since the absolutist period, states have largely been organized on a national basis.

IWW poster "Pyramid of the Capitalist System"(c. 1911), depicting an anti-capitalist perspective on statist/capitalist social structures

It also specifies the symbols and pictograms which may be used, and the orientations in which they may be used.

Yemenite Jew blows shofar, 1947

In her book Kingdoms and Communities in Western Europe 900-1300, Susan Reynolds argues that many European medieval kingdoms were nations in the modern sense except that political participation in nationalism was available only to a limited prosperous and literate class. In his book The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism, Adrian Hastings argues that England's Anglo Saxon kings mobilized mass nationalism in their struggle to repel Norse/Viking invasions.

A standard set of pictographs was defined in the international standard ISO 7001: Public Information Symbols.

Adrian Hastings (23 June 1929 – 30 May 2001) was a Roman Catholic priest, historian and author. He wrote a book about the "Wiriyamu massacre" during the Mozambican War of Independence.

Deicide is the killing of a god.

Mondlane's immediate successor was the moderate Rev. Uria Simango, who had served under him, as FRELIMO's vice-President, from its formation until 1969.

Various Christian denominations have taught that God is ultimately responsible for the death of Jesus, as part of the divine plan of salvation (cf. Acts 2:22-23). The Catholic Church and other Christian denominations' dogmata suggests that Jesus' death was necessary to take away the collective sin of the human race (see Substitutionary atonement).

The ISO/IEC JTC1 fast-track procedures ("Fast-track" as used by OOXML and "PAS" as used by OpenDocument) have garnered criticism in relation to the standardization of Office Open XML (ISO/IEC 29500).

FRELIMO opposed multi-party elections.

A notable use of the term can be found in the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology.

The movement could not then be based in Mozambique as the Portuguese opposed nationalist movements and the colony was controlled by the police. (The three founding groups had also operated as exiles.) Tanzania and its president, Julius Nyerere, were sympathetic to the Mozambican nationalist groups.

Under the Ecma International code of conduct in patent matters, participating and approving member organisations of ECMA are required to make available their patent rights on a reasonable and non-discriminatory (RAND) basis.

When in power, Nyerere issued the Arusha Declaration, which called for the implementation of an economic programme influenced by African socialist ideas.

RAND terms exclude intangible goods which the producer may decide to distribute at no cost and where third parties may make further copies. Take for example a software package that is distributed at no cost and to which the developer wants to add support for a video format which requires a patent licence. If there is a licence which requires a tiny per-copy fee, the software project will not be able to avail of the licence. The licence may be called "(F)RAND", but the modalities discriminate against a whole category of intangible goods such as free software and freeware.

The word "post-mitotic" is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells.

Secondly, no amount of money, whether it is accrued through taxation, foreign aid or private investment, will ever be enough to achieve the development targets and independence needs of a nation (Publicity Section, TANU, Dar es Salaam, 1967).

Selling software under any free software licence is permissible, as is commercial use.

Although many cells in the G0 phase may die along with the organism, not all cells that enter the G0 phase are destined to die; this is often simply a consequence of the cell's lacking any stimulation to re-enter in the cell cycle.

Cyclins form the regulatory subunits and CDKs the catalytic subunits of an activated heterodimer; cyclins have no catalytic activity and CDKs are inactive in the absence of a partner cyclin.

Most newly written free software licenses since the late 1990s include some form of patent retaliation clauses. These measures stipulate that one's rights under the license (such as to redistribution), may be terminated if one attempts to enforce patents relating to the licensed software, under certain circumstances. As an example, the Apple Public Source License may terminate a user's rights if said user embarks on litigation proceedings against them due to patent litigation.

International aid in the form of gifts by individuals or businesses (aka, "private giving") are generally administered by charities or philanthropic organizations who batch them and then channel these to the recipient country.

The first version of the Apple Public Source License was approved by the Open Source Initiative (OSI). Version 2.0, released July 29, 2003, is also approved as a free software license by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) which finds it acceptable for developers to work on projects that are already covered by this license.

A homo-dimer would be formed by two identical molecules (a process called homodimerization).

Cartoon diagram of a dimer of Escherichia coli galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) in complex with UDP-galactose (stick models). Potassium, zinc, and iron ions are visible as purple, gray, and bronze-colored spheres respectively.

Molecules as components of matter are common in organic substances (and therefore biochemistry). They also make up most of the oceans and atmosphere. However, the majority of familiar solid substances on Earth, including most of the minerals that make up the crust, mantle, and core of the Earth, contain many chemical bonds, but are not made of identifiable molecules.

This emerging upper-class fashion for benevolence resulted in the incorporation of the first charitable organizations. Captain Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, set up the Foundling Hospital in 1741 to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury.

The Foundling Hospital. The building has been demolished.

The FSF's board of governors includes amongst themselves professors at leading universities, senior engineers, and founders.

Many public institutions, such as public universities, are government-owned corporations.

Bloomsbury has no official boundaries, but can be roughly defined as the square of territory bounded by Tottenham Court Road to the west, Euston Road to the north, Gray's Inn Road to the east, and either High Holborn or the thoroughfare formed by New Oxford Street, Bloomsbury Way and Theobalds Road to the south. Bloomsbury merges gradually with Holborn in the south, with St Pancras and King's Cross in the north-east and with Clerkenwell in the south-east.

In 1692 Edmund Halley (in a paper printed in Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society of London) put forth the idea of Earth consisting of a hollow shell about 500 miles thick, with two inner concentric shells around an innermost core, corresponding to the diameters of the planets Venus, Mars, and Mercury respectively. Halley's construct was a method of accounting for the (flawed) values of the relative density of Earth and the Moon that had been given by Sir Isaac Newton, in Principia (1687).

In Chile, older, so called "traditional" universities are more prestigious than the ones created after 1980.

The name "Purtepol Street" is recorded in the time of Henry III and this may be the first reference to the current Gray's Inn Road.

A map of Gray's Inn Road

The 1964 presidential election of Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva by an absolute majority initiated a period of major reform.

A history of Catholicism has left landmarks like the Churches of Chiloé (in picture, Church of San Francisco in Castro) in Chile.

The idea that the objective, or light-gathering element, could be a mirror instead of a lens was being investigated soon after the invention of the refracting telescope. The potential advantages of using parabolic mirrors—reduction of spherical aberration and no chromatic aberration—led to many proposed designs and several attempts to build reflecting telescopes. In 1668, Isaac Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope, of a design which now bears his name, the Newtonian reflector.

A diagram of the electromagnetic spectrum with the Earth's atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) and the types of telescopes used to image parts of the spectrum.

After an initial ascension, Beatrice guides Dante through the nine celestial spheres of Heaven.

Rodin's The Kiss represents Paolo and Francesca from the Inferno.[57]

In 1970, Radomiro Tomic, leader of the left-wing faction of the party, was nominated to the presidency, but lost to socialist Salvador Allende.

Mirrors are manufactured by applying a reflective coating to a suitable substrate.

Almost nothing is known of Bronze Age (pre-1200 BC) Canaanite views of heaven, and the archeological findings at Ugarit (destroyed c.

After General Pinochet assumed power, United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger told President Richard Nixon that the U.S.

In 1835 German chemist Justus von Liebig developed a process for depositing silvering on the rear surface of a piece of glass that gained wide acceptance after improvement by Liebig in 1856. The process was further refined and made easier by French chemist Petitjean (1857).

Elam was an ancient civilization located to the east of Mesopotamia.

The Elamite language may have survived as late as the early Islamic period (roughly contemporary with the early medieval period in Europe).

In a massive operation spearheaded by Chilean Army para-commandos, some 2,000 security forces troops were deployed in the mountains of Neltume from June to November 1981, where they destroyed two MIR bases, seizing large caches of munitions and killing a number of guerrillas.

In what later became known as The Holocaust, the Nazi regime enacted policies which targeted minorities as well as political and religious opposition.

This increasingly absurd arrangement was highlighted by Charles Martel, who as Mayor of the Palace was effectively the strongest prince in the kingdom. His accomplishments were highlighted, not just by his famous defeat of invading Muslims at the Battle of Tours, which is typically considered the battle that saved Europe from Muslim conquest, but by the fact that he greatly expanded Frankish influence.

The four carabineros inside the police station had two SIG automatic rifles and two carabines with which they answered the fire from the MRC.

The world's first automatic rifle was the Italian Cei-Rigotti.

Hereafter the office was united with that of Neustria, though Burgundy remained a separate realm under the King of Neustria and Burgundy.

The Cei-Rigotti (also known as the Cei gas rifle) is an early automatic rifle created in the final years of the 19th century by Amerigo Cei-Rigotti, an officer in the Italian Army.

The decline of the kingdom began when they came under attack from their former Frankish allies. In 523 the sons of King Clovis campaigned the Burgundian lands, instigated by their mother Clotilde, whose father King Chilperic II had been killed by Gundobad.

Clotilde was born at the Burgundian court of Lyon, the daughter of King Chilperic II of Burgundy.

After the Axis defeat in Tunisia the morale of the Italian troops dropped and when the Allies landed in Sicily on July 10, 1943 most Italian Coastal divisions simply dissolved.

Martin Gilbert arrived at a "minimum estimate" of over 5.75 million Jewish victims. Lucy S.

The city is the headquarters of many companies like Euronews; Lyon Airports; BioMérieux; Sanofi Pasteur; LCL S.A.; Cegid Group; Boiron; Infogrames; Groupe SEB; Renault Trucks; Irisbus; LVL Medical, GL Events; Compagnie Nationale du Rhône; and intergovernmental agencies IARC, Interpol.

Husky began on the night of 9–10 July 1943, and ended on 17 August. Strategically, Husky achieved the goals set out for it by Allied planners; the Allies drove Axis air, land and naval forces from the island and the Mediterranean's sea lanes were opened.

Although modern German antisemitism has roots in nationalism, Dawidowicz held that Christian antisemitism is linked to the Roman Catholic Church, and was the foundation "upon which Luther built".

LCL S.A. is a major French financial services company, with its registered office in Lyon, France and its administrative head office in Paris, France. LCL is an abbreviation which means Le Crédit Lyonnais, the former name of the bank.

A registered office is the official address of an incorporated company, association or any other legal entity.

The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names. For example the Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum (Latin, "Our Sea"), and occasionally Mare Internum (Sallust, Jug. 17).

In 2010 amidst an outpouring of frustration and blame directed at Wall Street the issue of corporate contributions came before the court again. In Citizens United v FEC the court said there was virtually no distinction between monetary contributions and political speech, and because we do not limit political speech unless it is tantamount to bribery, corporations have the right as people to donate unlimited amounts of money to any political cause so long as it is not to a direct campaign.

The Christian religion is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ, who lived and preached in the 1st century AD in the province of Judea of the Roman Empire.

Both Caesar and Antipater were killed in 44 BCE, and the Idumean Herod the Great, Antipater's son, was designated "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate in 40 BCE. He didn't gain military control until 37 BCE.

A Gallup Poll conducted in October 2009, after oral argument, but released after the Supreme Court released its opinion, found that 57 percent of those surveyed "agreed that money given to political candidates is a form of free speech" and 55 percent agreed that the "same rules should apply to individuals, corporations and unions".

The peaceful coexistence of senatorial and barbarian rule continued until the Ostrogothic leader Theodahad began an uprising against Emperor Justinian I and took the senators as hostages.

The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum, the seat of the imperial Senate.

Beginning in the 3rd century BC, legionaries were paid stipendium (amounts are disputed but Caesar famously "doubled" payments to his troops to 225 denarii a year), could anticipate booty and donatives (distributions of plunder by commanders) from successful campaigns and, beginning at the time of Marius, often were granted allotments of land upon retirement. Cavalry and light infantry attached to a legion (the auxilia) were often recruited in the areas where the legion served.

Thiudehad appears as a character in the time travel novel Lest Darkness Fall, by

Another coin of Theodahad (534–536), minted in Rome. He wears the barbaric moustache.

In July 2013, the United States Department of Justice announced that Gallup had agreed to pay $10.5 million to settle allegations that it violated the False Claims Act and the Procurement Integrity Act for conduct involving several of its federal government contracts and subcontracts.

A predecessor of the denarius was first struck in 269 BC, five years before the first Punic War with an average weight of 6.8 grams,or 1⁄48 of a Roman pound.

Jo Walton wrote: "In 1939, L.

The U.S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary.

There were three military theaters in this war: Italy, where Hannibal defeated the Roman legions repeatedly; Hispania, where Hasdrubal, a younger brother of Hannibal, defended the Carthaginian colonial cities with mixed success until eventually retreating into Italy; and Sicily, where the Romans held military supremacy.

Milton Bennett Medary, Jr. (1874 – 1929) was an American architect from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, practicing with the firm Zantzinger, Borie and Medary from 1910 until his death.

Jo Walton (born December 1, 1964 in Aberdare) is a Welsh-Canadian fantasy and science fiction writer and poet.

The term "theater of operations" was defined in the field manuals as the land and sea areas to be invaded or defended, including areas necessary for administrative activities incident to the military operations (chart 12). In accordance with the experience of World War I, it was usually conceived of as a large land mass over which continuous operations would take place and was divided into two chief areas-the combat zone, or the area of active fighting, and the communications zone, or area required for administration of the theater.

The firm collaborated with Paul Philippe Cret for the completed buildings listed below, and on proposals for the Nebraska State Capitol and the Liberty Memorial in Kansas City.

Welsh people (Welsh: Cymry) are an ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales and the Welsh language.

The phonology of Welsh is characterised by a number of sounds that do not occur in English and are typologically rare in European languages, specifically the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative , voiceless nasal stops , , and , and voiceless rhotic .

International Direct Dialling (IDD) is provided, and Gibraltar was allocated the access code +350 by the International Telecommunication Union.

With the adoption of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Entente no longer existed. The Allied powers led a small-scale invasion of Russia, partly to stop Germany from exploiting Russian resources, and to a lesser extent, to support the "Whites" (as opposed to the "Reds") in the Russian Civil War. Allied troops landed in Arkhangelsk and in Vladivostok as part of the North Russia Intervention.

German Revolution, Kiel, 1918.

If there is no case marking, ergativity can be marked through other means, such as in verbal morphology. For instance, Abkhaz and most Mayan languages have no morphological ergative case, but they have verbal agreement structure which is ergative.

ITU, based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations Development Group. ITU has been an intergovernmental public-private partnership organization since its inception.

The Bolsheviks had an advantage in artillery in 1919 and renewed their offensive while the Vaga River was hurriedly evacuated.

Currently, the UNDG is one of the main UN actors involved in the development of the Post-2015 Development Agenda.

With both Bolsheviks and Mensheviks weakened by splits within their ranks and by Tsarist repression, they were tempted to try to re-unite the party.

At least two major Mayan languages have been confidently identified in hieroglyphic texts, with at least one other language probably identified. An archaic language variety known as Classic Maya predominates in these texts, particularly in the Classic-era inscriptions of the southern and central lowland areas.

Global conversation on the Post-2015 sustainable development agenda. Watch here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZQ54G1SoH4&feature=c4-overview&list=UUagCOAfZBpsTOlAJq_vcWbw

This was related to Russia's growing ambitions to become an Orthodox "Third Rome", after Constantinople had fallen.

Classic Maya is the principal language documented in the writing system used by the pre-Columbian Maya, and is particularly represented in inscriptions from the lowland regions and the period c.

Over 150 world leaders participated in the discussion, including 100 heads of state, 47 heads of government, three crown princes, five Vice Presidents, three Deputy Prime Ministers, and 8,000 other delegates. The Group of 77 was also present to discuss the changes the United Nations faced at the turn of the 21st century.

Giuseppe Mazzini, Italian nationalist and patriot promoted the notion of the "Third Rome".

The Democratic Party uses pledged delegates and superdelegates.

A similar debate exists for the Chinese script, which developed around 1200 BC.

In 1831 he went to Marseille, where he became a popular figure among the Italian exiles.

The song "Happy Days Are Here Again" is the unofficial song of the Democratic Party.

The port is also an important arrival base for millions of people each year, with 2.4 million including 890,100 from cruise ships. With its beaches, history, architecture and culture (24 museums and 42 theatres), Marseille is one of the most visited cities in France, with 4.1 million visitors in 2012. Marseille is ranked 86th in the world for business tourism and events, advancing from the 150th spot one year before. The number of congress days hosted on its territory increased from 109,000 in 1996 to almost 300,000 in 2011. They take place in three main sites, Le Palais du Pharo, Le Palais des Congrès et des Expositions (Parc Chanot) and the World Trade Center. In 2012 Marseille hosted the World Water Forum.

Seal script, which had evolved slowly in the state of Qin during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, became standardized and adopted as the formal script for all of China in the Qin Dynasty (leading to a popular misconception that it was invented at that time), and was still widely used for decorative engraving and seals (name chops, or signets) in the Han Dynasty period.

Streisand included live versions of the song on the following live albums "Live Concert at the Forum" (1972), "One Voice" (1987), "Barbra: The Concert" (1994) "Timeless: Live in Concert" (2000) and "Streisand: Live in Concert 2006" (2007).

The World Water Forum is an event focusing on the discussion on perceived issues surrounding water.

Early silent/talkies such as the Technicolor scenes of The Toll of the Sea (survive only), The Uninvited Guest, So This Is Marriage?, The Broadway Melody, Chasing Rainbows, The Rogue Song, the uncut version of the Laurel and Hardy short Blotto, and the silent Our Gang shorts from 1927-1929 were also destroyed in the fire.

The first known character dictionary was the 3rd century BC Erya, collated and bibliographed by Liu Xiang and his son Liu Xin, lost the pre-Han script during the course of textual transmission.

Chinese scholars interpret the first title character ěr (爾; "you, your; adverbial suffix") as a phonetic loan character for the homophonous ěr (邇; "near; close; approach"), and believe the second yǎ (雅; "proper; correct; refined; elegant") refers to words or language.

Erya Zhushu (爾雅注疏) exhibit in the Chinese Dictionary Museum, Jincheng, Shanxi

Water is important in many geological processes. Groundwater is present in most rocks, and the pressure of this groundwater affects patterns of faulting.

A young girl drinking bottled water

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body, vein or (coal) seam.

While this word jiajie dates from the Han Dynasty, the related term tongjia (通假 tōngjiǎ "interchangeable borrowing") is first attested from the Ming Dynasty.

Although the original 1930 version is now considered a lost film, a Spanish language version produced by MGM, entitled La Vida Nocturna has survived which shows how the film was originally presented, including a gag involving an electric fan after Stan says he needs some "fresh air".

The sulfate minerals all contain the sulfate anion, 2−.

IMA-CNMNC proposes a new hierarchical scheme (Mills et al., 2009).

Acting as a judge in lawsuits was one of many duties of the Magistrates of counties and Administrators of commanderies.

A wushu (五銖) coin issued during the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC), 25.5 mm in diameter

The International Mineralogical Association (IMA) is an international group of 38 national societies. The goal is to promote the science of mineralogy and to standardize the nomenclature of the 4000 plus known mineral species.

Spanish was an official language of the Philippines from the beginning of Spanish rule in 1565 to a constitutional change in 1973.

The jurisdiction of the magistrates varies from state to state.

The gold group, with a cubic close-packed structure, includes metals such as gold, silver, and copper. The platinum group is similar in structure to the gold group. The iron-nickel group is characterized by several iron-nickel alloy species. Two examples are kamacite and taenite, which are found in iron meteorites; these species differ by the amount of Ni in the alloy; kamacite has less than 5–7% nickel and is a variety of native iron, whereas the nickel content of taenite ranges from 7–37%.

Within other international contexts, there are intergovernmental organizations such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) that have socially and economically significant dispute resolution functions but, again, even though their jurisdiction may be invoked to hear the cases, the power to enforce their decisions is at the will of the states affected, save that the WTO is permitted to allow retaliatory action by successful states against those states found to be in breach of international trade law.

Type 2 is found as small grains mixed within basalt rock.

The World Trade Organisation Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement required signatory nations to raise intellectual property rights (also known as intellectual monopoly privileges).

Basalt in the tops of subaerial lava flows and cinder cones will often be highly vesiculated, imparting a lightweight "frothy" texture to the rock.

The economy was known as the "Tiger Economy in Asia", with an average of 6% GDP growth rate during the administration of

TRIPS was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1994.

Towards the end of World War II, the Japanese Supreme Council of War issued an order to have officials of the Philippine Government flown to Japan. President Laurel volunteered to go alone in order to spare his Cabinet members the ordeal of being separated from their families. His wife, Paciencia and 7 of his children went with him. Among the officials who accompanied him were Speaker Benigno Aquino, Sr., Minister of Education and Mrs.

In the March 2000 report on United Nations Reform priorities, former U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan wrote in favor of international humanitarian intervention, arguing that the international community has a "right to protect" citizens of the world against ethnic cleansing, genocide, and crimes against humanity. On the heels of the report, the Canadian government launched the Responsibility to Protect R2P project, outlining the issue of humanitarian intervention. While the R2P doctrine has wide applications, among the more controversial has been the Canadian government's use of R2P to justify its intervention and support of the coup in Haiti. Years after R2P, the World Federalist Movement, an organization which supports "the creation of democratic global structures accountable to the citizens of the world and call for the division of international authority among separate agencies", has launched Responsibility to Protect - Engaging Civil Society (R2PCS).

Benigno "Igno" Aquino was first elected to the Philippine Legislature (as a member of the Philippine House of Representatives) in 1919 representing the 2nd District of Tarlac.

WFM-IGP is composed of autonomous national and regional organizations organized by individual supporters in their respective countries. In applying to the governing Council for membership, organizations are asked to endorse the WFM Statement of Purpose and to demonstrate a "capacity to contribute to the enhancement of public and political support" for the Movement's goals.

The term "lava" can also be used to refer to molten "ice mixtures" in eruptions on the icy satellites of the Solar System's gas giants. See cryovolcanism.

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The Philippine Legislature was the legislative body of the Philippines from 1907 to 1935, during the American Colonial Period.

A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.

The alternative term jovian planet refers to the Roman god Jupiter—the genitive form of which is Jovis, hence Jovian—and was intended to indicate that all of these planets were similar to Jupiter.

A temple was dedicated to the goddess afterwards on the Palatine, testifying to her high station in the Roman mind. When Hieron of Syracuse presented a golden statuette of the goddess to Rome, the Senate had it placed in the temple of Capitoline Jupiter among the greatest (and most sacred) deities. Although Victoria played a significant role in the religious ideology of the late Republic and the Empire, she is undocumented in earlier times.

Statue of three figures, seated side by side

Capitoline Triad

Furthermore, Gibbon has been criticized for his portrayal of Paganism as tolerant and Christianity as intolerant. In an article that appeared in 1996 in the journal Past & Present, H.A.

His most important military achievement was the defeat of the Etruscans and Carthaginians at the Battle of Cumae (474 BC), by which he saved the Greeks of Campania from Etruscan domination.

The Battle of Cumae was a naval battle in 474 BC between the combined navies of Syracuse and Cumae against the Etruscans.

This expansion pushed the Press out of the Clarendon building. In 1825 the Delegates bought land in Walton Street. Buildings were constructed from plans drawn up by Daniel Robertson and Edward Blore, and the Press moved into them in 1830. This site remains the main office of OUP in the 21st century, at the corner of Walton Street and Great Clarendon Street, north-west of Oxford city centre.

The colony thrived. By the 8th century it was strong enough to send Perieres and a group with him, who were among the founders of Zancle in Sicily, and another band had returned to found Triteia in Achaea, Pausanias was told. It spread its influence throughout the area over the 7th and 6th centuries BC, gaining sway over Puteoli and Misenum and, thereafter, founding Neapolis in 470 BC.

Edward Blore (13 September 1787 – 4 September 1879) was a 19th-century (Victorian) British landscape and architectural artist, architect and antiquary.

Messina may have been the harbour at which the Black Death entered Europe: the plague was brought by Genoese ships coming from Caffa in the Crimea.

The connoisseur Horace Walpole, who shared many of the antiquaries' interests, was nonetheless emphatic in his insistence that the study of cultural relics should be selective and informed by taste and aesthetics.

It is believed that the devastating pandemic the Black Death entered Europe for the first time via Caffa in 1347, through the movements of the Golden Horde.

Gregory Loewen has suggested that the subject is key in the interaction with the aesthetic object.

Encounters between European explorers and populations in the rest of the world often introduced local epidemics of extraordinary virulence. Disease killed part of the native population of the Canary Islands in the 16th century (Guanches).

In Hermeneutic Pedagogy, Loewen "aims to expound the educational process in the hermeneutical tradition, but is also an essay on the educational model the author calls the hermeneutical circle of experiential pedagogy. Loewen elaborates a conception of learning which considers the dynamic relations between the conservative, the technical and the moral dimensions of education." The book defines the relationships amongst hexis, or custom, praxis, or applied theory, and phronesis, the Aristotelian understanding of practical wisdom, to which the critical interpretive process of learning ultimately aims. "Custom is only a first step in the dialectical process of learning. Not only do we forget and alter what we are taught, but also come to contest. Customs are reinterpreted, theory adjusted to suit reality, the social reality of tradition is reshaped, and the episteme of the serious business of constructing knowledge takes on its new historical task." The second step of a learning process is praxis applied theory. Its aim is to expand knowledge, to use it for progressive purposes. The institutions, says Loewen, are now the medium through which a paradigm comes into being. While 'repetition' is the key word for hexis and 'extension' for praxis, the process of learning fulfils itself in phronesis or practical knowledge. "While custom presents a ready-made reality for our consumption and oblation, and theory presents to us the revolution of consciousness that overturns that world, practical wisdom shines upon the light of worldliness, the way in which the world worlds itself." Through phronesis the hermeneutical circle of experiential pedagogy, as Loewen calls it, closes and accomplishes itself. It enlightens the other two constitutive dimensions, it puts them into question and reveals the abilities they do not capture, but which are central to the human being as a learning being. Phronesis names the radical learning experience that one individual has, experience which cannot be taught." Loewen's (2003, 2004, 2012) studies of educational processes expose the tacit expectations and latent functions of institutions and discourses, and owe much to the pioneering works of Bourdieu and Passeron.

The sugar-based economy of the islands faced stiff competition from Spain's American colonies. Low prices in the sugar market in the 19th century caused severe recessions on the islands. A new cash crop, cochineal (cochinilla), came into cultivation during this time, saving the islands' economy.

Cochineal is one of the few water-soluble colourants to resist degradation with time. It is one of the most light- and heat-stable and oxidation-resistant of all the natural organic colourants and is even more stable than many synthetic food colours. The water-soluble form is used in alcoholic drinks with calcium carmine; the insoluble form is used in a wide variety of products.

From Émile Durkheim, finally, through Marcel Mauss and Claude Lévi-Strauss, Bourdieu inherited a certain structuralist interpretation of the tendency of social structures to reproduce themselves, based on the analysis of symbolic structures and forms of classification.

Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, existentialism, such as that propounded by Jean-Paul Sartre, was the dominant European intellectual movement.

Shot sizes varies significantly from country to country.

Also,

Before Prohibition in the U.S. in the early to mid 1900s, thin-sided whiskey glasses were common.

The Blood of Others is a novel by the French existentialist Simone de Beauvoir first published in 1945 and depicting the lives of several characters in Paris leading up to and during the Second World War.

Economic urgency played no small part in accelerating the advocacy for repeal. The number of conservatives who pushed for prohibition in the beginning decreased. Many farmers who fought for prohibition now fought for repeal because of the negative effects it had on their agriculture business. Prior to the 1920 implementation of the Volstead Act, approximately fourteen percent of federal, state, and local tax revenues were derived from alcohol commerce. When the Great Depression hit and tax revenues plunged, the governments needed this revenue stream. Millions could be made by taxing beer. There was controversy on whether the repeal should be a state or nationwide decision. On March 22, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed an amendment to the Volstead Act, known as the Cullen–Harrison Act, allowing the manufacture and sale of 3.2 beer (3.2 percent alcohol by weight, approximately 4 percent alcohol by volume) and light wines.

Japan planned to rapidly seize European colonies in Asia to create a large defensive perimeter stretching into the Central Pacific; the Japanese would then be free to exploit the resources of Southeast Asia while exhausting the over-stretched Allies by fighting a defensive war. To prevent American intervention while securing the perimeter it was further planned to neutralise the United States Pacific Fleet and the American military presence in the Philippines from the outset. On 7 December (8 December in Asian time zones), 1941, Japan attacked British and American holdings with near-simultaneous offensives against Southeast Asia and the Central Pacific. These included an attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor, landings in Thailand and Malaya and the battle of Hong Kong.

Meanwhile, in the Pacific, the Japanese advance reached its maximum extent by June 1942, when the U.S. Navy scored a decisive victory at the Battle of Midway.

When the Japanese invaded, they had over 200 tanks, consisting of the Type 95 Ha-Go, Type 97 Chi-Ha, Type 89 I-Go and Type 97 Te-Ke. In addition they had over 500 combat aircraft available.

Bristol Blenheim bombers of No. 62 Squadron RAF lined up at Tengah, Singapore, 8 February 1941.

Over the following two days, first Midway and then Spruance's carriers launched several strikes against the stragglers. Mikuma was eventually sunk by Dauntlesses, while Mogami survived further severe damage to return home for repairs. The destroyers Arashio and Asashio were also bombed and strafed during the last of these attacks. Captain

It is considered one of the best light tanks in 1935, being armed with a 37 mm cannon, and powered by a diesel engine, a fuel considered by some to be superior due to its low volatility. As with most armies in the 1930s, including the US Army, the tank, and the light tank in particular, were used primarily to support infantry or serve as cavalry reconnaissance and to a lesser extent, as raiding vehicles.

High- and medium-speed engines are predominantly four-stroke engines; except for the Detroit Diesel two-stroke range.

The Japanese Navy devastated Qing's Beiyang Fleet off the mouth of the Yalu River during the Battle of Yalu River on 17 September 1894, in which the Chinese fleet lost eight out of 12 warships. Although Japan turned out victorious, the two large German-made battleships of the Chinese Navy remained almost impervious to Japanese guns, highlighting the need for bigger capital ships in the Japanese Navy (Ting Yuan was finally sunk by torpedoes, and Chen Yuan was captured with little damage).

Detroit Diesel consists of two divisions. The off-highway division, which is owned by Tognum, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Engine Holding GmbH, a joint venture of Daimler AG and Rolls-Royce Group plc.

The Japanese had intended on swinging the flying division around the right flank of the Chinese line in an encirclement but the timely arrival of the Kuang Ping and Pingyuan and torpedo boats Fu Lung (built at Schichau) and Choi Ti ( a Yarrow-built vessel) diverted this maneuver.

Japanese print depicting the Matsushima (left) attacking Chinese warships

Rolls-Royce Power Systems AG is the name of a German industrial concern, which holds interests in a number of engine manufacturing brands and facilities, owned by Rolls-Royce.

At the end of the war the original factory sites went into Polish ownership with the loss of East Prussia to Poland and the Soviet Union.

In 1944 the medieval city of Königsberg, which had never been severely damaged by warfare in its 700 years of existence, was almost completely destroyed by two Allied air raids on the night of 26/27 August 1944 and three nights later on the 29/30 August 1944.

During the 2011 Avalon Airshow, Rolls-Royce faced questions concerning incidents with its Trent 900 Turbofan used to power the Airbus A380 aircraft.

Following the defeat of the Central Powers in World War I, Imperial Germany was replaced with the democratic Weimar Republic.

The 1949 Constitution of East Germany (officially, the German Democratic Republic) contained many passages that were originally part of the 1919 constitution. It was intended to be the constitution of a united Germany, and was thus a compromise between liberal-democratic and Leninist ideologies.

The official coat of arms of Germany (Reichswappen) from 1919 to 1928.

Other highlights included the popular Breitling Wingwalkers with their two Boeing PT-17 Stearman biplanes, although they were reduced to a single aircraft after one suffered an engine failure during the display on the trade days.

The Stearman (Boeing) Model 75 is a biplane used as a military trainer aircraft, of which at least 10,626 were built in the United States during the 1930s and 1940s. Stearman Aircraft became a subsidiary of Boeing in 1934.

East German theatre was originally dominated by Bertolt Brecht, who brought back many artists out of exile and reopened the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm with his Berliner Ensemble.

Stearman Aircraft Corporation was an aircraft manufacturer in Wichita, Kansas.

Hangmen Also Die! was Brecht's only script for a Hollywood film. The money he earned from writing the film enabled him to write The Visions of Simone Machard, Schweik in the Second World War and an adaptation of Webster's The Duchess of Malfi.

In the United States, the Department of Defense and NASA are the two biggest consumers of aerospace technology and products.

The Duchess of Malfi is an adaptation by the twentieth-century German dramatist Bertolt Brecht of the English seventeenth-century tragedy by John Webster. He collaborated with H.

The inner Solar System has been made the goal of at least four unmanned programs.

In an effort to develop new American voices in playwriting, a phenomenon known as new play development began to emerge in the early-to-mid-1980s, and continues through today. Many regional theatres have hired dramaturges and literary managers in an effort to showcase various festivals for new work, or bring in playwrights for residencies. Funding through national organizations, such as the National Endowment for the Arts and the Theatre Communications Group, encouraged the partnerships of professional theatre companies and emerging playwrights.

The Solar System is in the Local Interstellar Cloud or Local Fluff.

The Local Interstellar Cloud (or Local Fluff or LIC) is the interstellar cloud roughly 30 light-years (9.2 pc) across through which the Earth's Solar System is currently moving.

A preferred provider organization is a subscription-based medical care arrangement.

The parallax method is the fundamental calibration step for distance determination in astrophysics; however, the accuracy of ground-based telescope measurements of parallax angle is limited to about 0.01 arcsecond, and thus to stars no more than 100 pc distant. This is because the Earth’s atmosphere limits the sharpness of a star's image. Space-based telescopes are not limited by this effect and can accurately measure distances to objects beyond the limit of ground-based observations.

Renewal of a subscription may be periodic and activated automatically, so that the cost of a new period is automatically paid for by a pre-authorized charge to a credit card or a checking account.

Parallax affects sights in many ways.

Hubble Space Telescope - Spatial scanning precisely measures distances up to 10,000 light-years away (10 April 2014).[9]

Interest charges vary widely from card issuer to card issuer.

A sight is a device used to assist aligning or aim weapons, surveying instruments, or other items by eye. Sights can be a simple set or system of markers that have to be aligned together as well as aligned with the target (referred to as an iron sights on firearms). They can also be optical devices that allow the user to see the image of an aligned aiming point in the same focus as the target.

Mark III free gun reflector sight mk 9 variant

Annual percentage rate is the principal means of comparing credit products.

Many target sights are designed with vertical or even undercut front sight blades, which reduces the angles at which light will produce glare off the sight—the downside of these sights is that they tend to snag on clothing, branches, and other materials, so they are only common on target guns. Sight hoods reduce the chances of snagging an undercut sight and are common on some types of rifles, particularly lever action rifles, but they are prohibited in some shooting disciplines such as some classes of handgun metallic silhouette shooting.

In some areas, the annual percentage rate (APR) is the simplified counterpart to the effective interest rate that the borrower will pay on a loan.

Annual percentage yield or effective annual yield is the analogous concept used for savings or investment products, such as a certificate of deposit.

The yield of a debt instrument is generally linked to the credit worthiness and default probability of the issuer.

All rifle shooting is done standing, with the firearm unsupported. The exception to this is black-powder rifle; the ranges are the same as large-bore rifle, but only chickens must be shot unsupported; all other targets may be shot from any position, including crossed sticks, a bench may not be used.

Affirmative covenants are clauses in debt contracts that require firms to maintain certain levels of capital or financial ratios.

Some chairs have two curved bands of wood (also known as rockers) attached to the bottom of the legs. They are called rocking chairs.

Debt ratios quantify the firm's ability to repay long-term debt. Debt ratios measure financial leverage.

Rocking chairs are also comfortable because, when a user sits in one without rocking, the chair automatically rocks backwards until the sitter's center of gravity is met thus granting an ergonomic benefit with the occupant kept at an unstressed position and angle.

This incident prompted the G-10 nations to form the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in late 1974, under the auspices of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) located in Basel, Switzerland.

Physical ergonomics: the science of designing user interaction with equipment and workplaces to fit the user.

The carnival of the city of Basel (Basler Fasnacht) is a major cultural event in the year.

Physiological studies date back to ancient civilizations of India, Egypt alongside anatomical studies but did not utilize dissections and vivisection. The study of human physiology as a medical field dates back to at least 420  BC to the time of Hippocrates, also known as the father of medicine. The critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece, while Claudius Galenus (c.

The approximately 18,000 active Fasnächtler dress up in a wide variety of costumes, including a mask known as a Larve.

A Gugge (brass band)

Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, Theophrastus, wrote a series of books on botany—the History of Plants—which survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to botany, even into the Middle Ages.

An interesting example of a sports mask that confounds the protective function is the wrestling mask, a mask most widely used in the Mexican/Latin lucha libre style of wrestling.

Most of the biographical information we have of Theophrastus was provided by Diogenes Laërtius' Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, written more than four hundred years after Theophrastus' time. He was a native of Eresos in Lesbos. His given name was Tyrtamus (Τύρταμος), but he later became known by the nickname "Theophrastus," given to him, it is said, by Aristotle to indicate the grace of his conversation (from Ancient Greek Θεός "god" and φράζειν "to phrase", i.e.

A staple gimmick present in lucha libre since the 1950s is exótico, basically a gay character in drag.

In lucha libre, an exótico is a luchador (male wrestler) fighting/performing in drag.

The island is forested and mountainous with two large peaks, Mt. Lepetymnos at 968 m (3,176 ft) and Mt. Olympus at 967 m (3,173 ft), dominating its northern and central sections. The island's volcanic origin is manifested in several hot springs and the two gulfs.

A hot spring is a spring that is produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater from the Earth's crust.

Folk wrestling styles are not recognized as international styles of wrestling by FILA.

The temperature of the crust increases with depth, reaching values typically in the range from about 200 °C (392 °F) to 400 °C (752 °F) at the boundary with the underlying mantle. The crust and underlying relatively rigid uppermost mantle make up the lithosphere.

Oceanic lithosphere consists mainly of mafic crust and ultramafic mantle (peridotite) and is denser than continental lithosphere, for which the mantle is associated with crust made of felsic rocks.

A Secretary General is chosen by the bureau for six years and is the secondary director of UWW behind the President, serves as secretary of both the Bureau and the Congress, and maintains healthy communication between the national federations, the Continental Committees, the Commissions, and all the departments of UWW. The current Secretary General is Michel Dusson from France.

Mafic is an adjective describing a silicate mineral or rock that is rich in magnesium and iron, and hence is a contraction of "magnesium" and "ferric". Most mafic minerals are dark in color, and common rock-forming mafic minerals include olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, and biotite.

Arm drags, bear hugs, and headlocks, which can be found in Freestyle, have even greater prominence in Greco-Roman.

Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction.

These illumination techniques are most commonly used on birefringent samples where the polarized light interacts strongly with the sample and so generating contrast with the background.

A grappling hold (commonly referred to simply as a hold; in Japanese referred to as katame-waza, 固め技, "grappling technique") is a grappling, wrestling, judo or other martial arts term for a specific grip that is applied to an opponent.

Birefringence is used in many optical devices. Liquid crystal displays, the most common sort of flat panel display, cause their pixels to become lighter or darker through rotation of the polarization (circular birefringence) of linearly polarized light as viewed through a sheet polarizer at the screen's surface.

Fencing and Greco-Roman wrestling was included in the 1896 Summer Olympics.

U.S. Army Combatives instructor Matt Larsen demonstrates a chokehold.

The spatial resolution of an LCD is expressed by the number of columns and rows of pixels (e.g., 1024×768). Each pixel is usually composed 3 sub-pixels, a red, a green, and a blue one. This had been one of the few features of LCD performance that was easily understood and not subject to interpretation. However there are newer schemes that share sub-pixels among pixels and to add additional colors of sub-pixels.

The name "Greco-Roman" was applied to this style of wrestling as a way of purporting it to be similar to the wrestling formerly found in the ancient civilizations surrounding the Mediterranean Sea especially at ancient Greek olympics. It is speculated that many styles of European folk wrestling may have spurred the origins of Greco-Roman wrestling. According to FILA, a Napoleonic soldier named Jean Exbrayat first developed the style.

Traditionally wrestling has two main centers in Great Britain: the West Country, where the Devon and Cornwall styles were developed, and in the Northern counties, the home of the Cumberland and Westmorland styles.

Many display and image-acquisition systems are, for various reasons, not capable of displaying or sensing the different color channels at the same site.

This example shows an image with a portion greatly enlarged, in which the individual pixels are rendered as small squares and can easily be seen.

There is a sizeable Muslim population in the north, which ranges from zero percent in many rural areas to 19.4% in Blackburn with Darwen.

Among other techniques, lossy video compression uses Chroma subsampling to reduce the bit depth in color channels (Hue and Saturation), while keeping all brightness information (Value in HSV).

The local elections of May 2007 saw a coalition of parties take control of the council from Labour. The small For Darwen party and independents held the fine balance of power on the council in a partnership with the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats.

HSL and HSV are both cylindrical geometries (fig. 2), with hue, their angular dimension, starting at the red primary at 0°, passing through the green primary at 120° and the blue primary at 240°, and then wrapping back to red at 360°.

The party split up the Liberal Democrat/Conservative ruling coalition when two of their councillors moved over to different political parties.

The party has polled consistently in all four elections to the National Assembly, returning six representatives in the first three elections and five in the 2011 Election, thereby establishing itself as the fourth party in Wales behind Labour, the Conservatives and Plaid Cymru.

Red is still commonly associated with prostitution.

In September 2008, a senior Plaid Cymru assembly member spelled out her party's continuing support for an independent Wales.

A variety of terms are used for those who engage in prostitution, some of which distinguish between different types of prostitution or imply a value judgment about them. Common alternatives for prostitute include escort and whore; however, not all professional escorts are prostitutes.

The National Assembly for Wales is composed of 60 members known as AMs or Assembly Members (in Welsh: ACau or Aelodau'r Cynulliad).

It is very common for escorts to enter the business through referrals from friends who have been in the business. The effectiveness of ads in weeklies or specialized sites has been questioned by some operators as there are so many that they are diluted.

In the past, correspondents often submitted stories along the lines of "Mr. and Mrs. John Jones had company from out-of-town last week",

In the later 19th century virtually all teaching in the schools of Wales was in English, even in areas where the pupils barely understood English. Some schools used the Welsh Not, a piece of wood, often bearing the letters "WN", which was hung around the neck of any pupil caught speaking Welsh.

Adobe developed InDesign CS3 (and Creative Suite 3) as universal binary software compatible with native Intel and PowerPC Mac machines in 2007, two years after the announced 2005 schedule, inconveniencing Intel-Mac early-adopters.

InDesign CS5 icon

The Local Government (Ireland) Act 1919 introduced proportional representation to county councils: all councillors were to be elected by single transferable vote from multi-member electoral areas. There was only one election under the new system, held in January 1920 (in urban areas) and on 2 June 1920 (in rural areas), during the Irish War of Independence.

Changhua County Council building

As for Mac OS, System 7 was a 32-bit rewrite from Pascal to C++ that introduced virtual memory and improved the handling of color graphics, as well as memory addressing, networking, and co-operative multitasking.

The Irish War of Independence (Irish: Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.

Wall plaque in Great Denmark Street, Dublin where the Dublin IRA Active Service Unit was founded.

Threads were born from the idea that the most efficient way for cooperating processes to exchange data would be to share their entire memory space.

The term "guerrilla" was used in English as early as 1809, to describe the fighters (e.g., "The town was taken by the guerrillas"), and also (as in Spanish) to denote a group or band of such fighters. However, in most languages guerrilla still denotes the specific style of warfare. The use of the diminutive evokes the differences in number, scale, and scope between the guerrilla army and the formal, professional army of the state.

The diminutive suffixes of Finnish "-ke", "-kka", and "-nen" are not universal, and cannot be used on every noun. The feature is common in Finnish surnames, f.e.

Process schedulers of many modern operating systems directly support both time-sliced and multiprocessor threading.

The style of having both a family name (surname) and a given name (forename) is far from universal.

Rank and frequency of some US surnames

More advanced algorithms take into account process priority, or the importance of the process. This allows some processes to use more time than other processes. The kernel always uses whatever resources it needs to ensure proper functioning of the system, and so can be said to have infinite priority. In SMP(symmetric multiprocessing) systems, processor affinity is considered to increase overall system performance, even if it may cause a process itself to run more slowly.

Even more important a driver of change was the need, for administrative purposes, to develop a system under which each individual had a "stable" name from birth to death. In the old days, people would be known by their name, patronymic and the farm they lived at. This last element would change if a person got a new job, bought a new farm, or otherwise came to live somewhere else. (This is part of the origin, in this part of the world, of the custom of women changing their names upon marriage. Originally it indicated, basically, a change of address, and from older times, there are numerous examples of men doing the same thing). The many patronymic names may derive from the fact that people who moved from the country to the cities, also gave up the name of the farm they came from. As a worker, you passed by your father's name, and this name passed on to the next generation as a family name. Einar Gerhardsen, the Norwegian prime minister, used a true patronym, as his father was named Gerhard Olsen (Gerhard, the son of Ola).

First/given, middle, and last/family/surname diagram with J. S. Bach as example. J. S. Bach shared his given name with six immediate family members and many extended family members. He shared his family name with most family members.

Time-sharing and server systems can often use SMP without changes to applications, as they may have multiple processes running in parallel, and a system with more than one process running can run different processes on different processors.

He inherited a hut (from his father); it was called Kristi Rolighet and it was located next to Dælivannet in Bærum.

Einar Gerhardsen in 1983

Servers often run for long periods without interruption and availability must often be very high, making hardware reliability and durability extremely important.

In 2010, the city hosted that year's Eurovision Song Contest.

Availability is used extensively in power plant engineering.

A power station (also referred to as a generating station, power plant, powerhouse or generating plant) is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. Each power stations contains one or more generators, a rotating machine that converts mechanical power into electrical power by creating relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor.

Thirty-nine countries took part in the contest, with Georgia returning after a one year hiatus, and Andorra, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Montenegro withdrawing.

Copper has a high conductivity.

In 2013, Georgia selected its entry internally. Sopho Gelovani & Nodiko Tatishvili was the first duo to represent Georgia in Eurovision.

Near room temperatures, metals have resistance.

He was six years old when he made his first appearance in the Tbilisi Great Concert Hall.

Tbilisi is located in the South Caucasus at 41° 43' North Latitude and 44° 47' East Longitude.

Sameba Cathedral

Research has shown that SBS shares several symptoms common in other conditions thought to be at least partially caused by psychosomatic tendencies. The umbrella term 'autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants' has been suggested.

After two wars in the beginning of 19th century, the Russian Empire finally conquered the Transcaucasia from the Qajars, severing historic regional ties with Iran. In 1801, what is now Georgia was formally incorporated into the Russian Empire.

Pristane is a natural saturated terpenoid alkane obtained primarily from shark liver oil, from which its name is derived (Latin pristis, "shark").

Shark liver oil is an oil obtained from the livers of sharks.

This is predominantly due to the hepatocytes re-entering the cell cycle.

During this time, Fr.

The cells which are actively undergoing cell cycle are targeted in cancer therapy as the DNA is relatively exposed during cell division and hence susceptible to damage by drugs or radiation.

Nobel Laureate Paul Nurse

Following Bloody Sunday, Gapon anathematized the Tsar and called upon the workers to take action against the regime, but soon after escaped abroad, where he had close ties with the Socialist-Revolutionary Party.

Left SRs and Bolsheviks referred to the mainstream SR party as the "Right SR party" whereas mainstream SRs referred to the party as just "SR" and reserved the term "Right SR" for the rightwing faction of the party which was led by Breshkovsky and Avksentev. The primary issues motivating the split were the war and the redistribution of land.

She escaped to Switzerland and the United States in 1900.

A large number of international institutions have their seats in Switzerland, in part because of its policy of neutrality. Geneva is the birthplace of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and the Geneva Conventions and, since 2006, hosts the United Nations Human Rights Council.

Life-threatening disease redirects here.

The Geneva Environment Network (GEN) publishes the Geneva Green Guide, and extensive listing of Geneva-based global organisations working on environment protection and sustainable development.

The Geneva Environment Network (GEN) is a cooperative partnership of over 75 environment and sustainable development organizations based in the Geneva area, including United Nations offices and programmes, local authorities, academic institutions and non-governmental organizations.

Life-threatening disease redirects here.

Geneva observes Jeûne genevois on the first Thursday following the first Sunday in September.

In Europe, beginning in the 15th century, people fasted as a way of remembering famines, plagues and wars.

Atopy /ˈætəpiː/ Greek ἀτοπία - placelessness, out of place, special, unusual, extraordinary) or atopic syndrome is a predisposition toward developing certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions.

Other areas of Europe have known famines much more recently. France saw famines as recently as the 19th century.

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European language family.

As the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language broke up, its sound system diverged as well, changing according to various sound laws evidenced in the daughter languages.

In historical linguistics, a daughter language is a language descended from another language through a process of genetic descent.

France was a member of the Triple Entente when World War I broke out.

Joan of Arc led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War, which paved the way for the final victory.

The Entente heralded the end of British neutrality in Europe.

Contact with another language (language contact) can result in influence (linguistic interference and specifically borrowing) by it.

By contrast, function words such as pronouns, and words referring to universal concepts, are the most static words within each language.

Grammatical words, as a class, can have distinct phonological properties from content words.

The Entente heralded the end of British neutrality in Europe.

Salisbury never used the term to describe his approach to foreign policy, and even argued against its use. It could be claimed that Britain was not isolated during this period owing to her informal alignments such as the two Mediterranean Agreements as well as the fact that it still traded with other European powers and remained heavily connected with the Empire.

Phonology is often distinguished from phonetics.

In the Mediterranean, a guerrilla war waged by Greek Cypriots ended in (1960) an independent Cyprus, with the UK retaining the military bases of Akrotiri and Dhekelia.

Phonetics was studied as early as the 3rd century BC in the Indian subcontinent, with Pāṇini's account of the place and manner of articulation of consonants in his treatise on Sanskrit.

At the peak of the conflict, EOKA' paramilitary numbered 1,250 members (250 regulars plus 1,000 active underground). They faced British security forces totalling 40,000 (32,000 regulars plus 8,000 auxiliaries). EOKA was allegedly clandestinely supported by the Greek Government in the form of arms, money and propaganda on radio stations broadcast from Athens.

While Pāṇini's work is purely grammatical and lexicographic, cultural and geographical inferences can be drawn from the vocabulary he uses in examples, and from his references to fellow grammarians, which show he was a northwestern person. New deities referred to in his work include Vasudeva (4.3.98).

Poster showing the increase of agricultural production in the German Democratic Republic from 1981 to 1983 and 1986

Jarasandha, father-in-law of Kamsa, invaded Mathura with a vast army; and though Krishna destroyed his army of demons, another asura, Kalayavan by name, surrounded Mathura with another army of thirty million monstrous fiends.

Lenin saw Poland as the bridge which the Red Army would have to cross in order to assist the other communist movements and help bring about other European revolutions.

A demonstration by Falun Gong supporters.

Rabbinical demonology has three classes of demons, though they are scarcely separable one from another.

Progressive, Liberal and Reform Judaism are forms of the Reform movement in Judaism. Its reform rabbinic studies are mandated in pastoral care, the historical development of Judaism, and academic biblical criticism, in addition to the traditional study of rabbinic texts.

At the beginning of its existence, the Red Army functioned as a voluntary formation, without ranks or insignia. Democratic elections selected the officers. However, a decree of 29 May 1918 imposed obligatory military service for men of ages 18 to 40. To service the massive draft, the Bolsheviks formed regional military commissariats (voyennyy komissariat, abbr. voyenkomat), which as of 2006 still exist in Russia in this function and under this name. Military commissariats however should not be confused with the institution of military political commissars.

Progressive Judaism is an umbrella term used by the strands of Liberal, Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism which are affiliated with the World Union for Progressive Judaism (WUPJ).

From December 1943 until the defeat of Nazi Germany, the German armed forces created a network of political instructors to maintain National Socialist indoctrination of the Wehrmacht.

The Reconstructionist Rabbinical College educates rabbis.

David Teutsch became president in 1993.

Ziegleman Hall, the RRC's main building

The consensus of the Orthodox Jewish community has been

Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, a leading Rabbinical authority for Orthodox Judaism of the second half of the twentieth century.

According to Josephus, whereas the Sadducees believed that people have total free will and the Essenes believed that all of a person's life is predestined, the Pharisees believed that people have free will but that God also has foreknowledge of human destiny.

Philosophy on the concepts of destiny and fate has existed since the Hellenistic period with groups such as the Stoics and the Epicureans.

Because Volk is the generic German word for "people" in the ethnic sense today as well as for "people entitled to vote" (Wahlvolk), its use does not necessarily denote any particular political views in post-1945 Germany. However, because of its past, the word is rarely used with Bevölkerung ("population") serving as a substitute. "Wir sind das Volk!" ("We are the people!") was a chant used by the Monday demonstrators during the peaceful demonstrations of 1989/1990 to end the DDR and bring down the Berlin Wall.

They held that external differences such as rank and wealth are of no importance in social relationships. Instead they advocated the brotherhood of humanity and the natural equality of all human beings. Stoicism became the most influential school of the Greco–Roman world, and produced a number of remarkable writers and personalities, such as Cato the Younger and Epictetus.

Informed by West German television and friends about the events, people in other East German cities began repeating the Leipzig demonstration, meeting at city squares on Monday evenings.

His most famous pupil, Arrian, studied under him when a young man (c.

Arrian is an important historian because his work on Alexander is the widest read, and arguably the most complete, account of the Macedonian conqueror.

In newer cities that have been planned mostly around the use of automobiles, public squares are rare and tend to be limited to the older central districts. The social utility of such public spaces can be severely curtailed by the high cost of downtown parking; at the same time, the high demand for parking has historically led to the proliferation of street-level parking lots which has further diminished the potential availability of open pedestrian space. Another deterrent is the perception of the urban core as a particularly dangerous crime center, whether the notion is justified or not.

Soldiers and Sailors is a town square monument that Grover Cleveland laid a cornerstone for and later dedicated in Lafayette Square, Buffalo.

However they are not only a British phenomenon, as the Place des Vosges in Paris and the Square de Meeûs and Square Orban in Brussels show.

The king could grant the atelíē (ἀτελίη), a privilege of tax exemption, as Alexander did with those Macedonian families which had losses in the battle of the Granicus in May 334: they were exempted from paying tribute for leasing royal grounds and commercial taxes.

Various military cemeteries are located in the department the largest of which is the Le Quéquement American Cemetery in Dinozé, near Epinal.

Following the assassination of Alexander's father, Philip II of Macedon, and the subsequent consolidation of Alexander's Macedonian positions, he set out into Asia in 334 BC.

On November 8, 1977, Greek archaeologist Manolis Andronikos found, among other royal tombs, an unopened tomb at Vergina in the Greek regional unit of Imathia.

The commune of Dinozé was only established in March 1932. The village had been previously part of Arches.

He studied philosophy at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and in 1952 became a professor of Classical Archeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

Arches is a commune in the Vosges department in Lorraine in northeastern France.

The language of instruction is Greek, although there are programs in foreign languages and courses for international students, which are carried out in English, French, German, and Italian.

In the north, cities tended to be administered by échevins (from an old Germanic word meaning judge), while in the south, cities tended to be administered by consuls (in a clear reference to Roman antiquity), but Bordeaux was administered by jurats (etymologically meaning "sworn men") and Toulouse by capitouls ("men of the chapter").

Jurats now serve until retirement (at 72) as non-professional judges of fact (though not of law). They also determine sentences in criminal matters and assess damages in civil matters. There are twelve Jurats at any one time, who are indirectly elected by an electoral college constituted of States Members and members of the legal profession.

Another type of Electoral College is used by the British Labour Party to choose its leader.

French is the official language in France's overseas regions of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, and overseas collectivities of Saint Barthélemy, St.

In 1946, the French National Assembly voted unanimously to transform the colony into an Overseas Department of France.

In the 1979 election Labour suffered electoral defeat by the Conservatives, now led by Margaret Thatcher.

Ramsay MacDonald: First Labour Prime Minister, 1924 and 1929–31

In the end, the overall swing of 5.2% was the largest since 1945 and gave the Conservatives a workable majority of 43 for the country's first female Prime Minister.

To be eligible to be elected to the National Assembly, one must be at least 23 years old, of French citizenship, and not subject to a sentence of deprivation of civil rights or to personal bankruptcy.

Personal bankruptcy in Israel is governed by the Bankruptcy Ordinance, 1980. Debtors and their creditors may apply to the court for bankruptcy. If it is granted, an automatic stay enters into force and a trustee (frequently the Official Receiver) is appointed for the debtor's assets. The automatic stay does not bar secured creditors' lien enforcement.

A secured creditor is a creditor with the benefit of a security interest over some or all of the assets of the debtor.

Other authors prefer to use the symbols ⊂ and ⊃ to indicate proper subset and superset, respectively, in place of ⊊ and ⊋. This usage makes ⊆ and ⊂ analogous to the inequality symbols ≤ and <.

A creditor is a party (e.g.

The property of Trichotomy (as stated above) is not valid for vector relationships. For example, when and , there exists no valid inequality relationship between these two vectors. Also, a multiplicative inverse would need to be defined on a vector before this property could be considered.

Courts use various terms to identify the role of a particular party in civil litigation, usually identifying the party that brings a lawsuit as the plaintiff, or, in older American cases, the party of the first part; and the party against whom the case was brought as the defendant, or, in older American cases, the party of the second part.

If the multiplication is associative, an element x with a multiplicative inverse cannot be a zero divisor (meaning for some y, xy = 0 with neither x nor y equal to zero).

Graph of f(x) = xx showing the minimum at (1/e, e-1/e).

A plaintiff (Π in legal shorthand), also known as a claimant or complainant, is the term used in some jurisdictions for the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court.

During the 18th and 19th centuries, it was common for lawyers to speak of bringing an "action" at law and a "suit" in equity.

One area in which the Court of Chancery assumed a vital role was the enforcement of uses, a role that the rigid framework of land law could not accommodate.

The definition of an ideal in a ring is analogous to that of normal subgroup in a group.

Richard Dedekind, one of the founders of ring theory.

The Court of Chancery eventually assumed the task of enforcing uses.

Some further procedural reforms were undertaken in the 1850s. In 1850, a new set of Chancery orders were produced by the Lord Chancellor, allowing Masters to speed up cases in whatever way they chose and allowing plaintiffs to file a claim, rather than the more expensive and long-winded bill of complaint. The Suitors in Chancery Relief Act 1852 gave all court officials salaries, abolished the need to pay them fees and made it illegal for them to receive gratuities; it also removed more sinecure positions. The Master in Chancery Abolition Act 1852 abolished the Masters in Chancery, allowing all cases to be heard directly by judges instead of bounced back-and-forth between judges and Masters. As a result of these reforms the court became far more efficient, and the backlog decreased; in the 1860s an average of 3,207 cases were submitted each year, while the Court heard and dismissed 3,833, many of them from the previous backlog. Much of this work was carried out by the growing number of clerks, however, and members of the legal profession became concerned about the "famine" of equity judges. Despite these reforms, it was still possible for Charles Dickens, writing in 1852 in the preface to his novel Bleak House, to bemoan the inefficiencies of the Court of Chancery.

Dickens locates

Let D be the product of ω(D) distinct prime numbers (i.e. D is squarefree).

LCMs of numbers 0 through 10. Line labels = first number. X axis = second number. Y axis = LCM.

The positive integer n is square-free if and only if in the prime factorization of n, no prime number occurs more than once.

There is no known efficient formula for primes. For example, Mills' theorem and a theorem of

Caldwell & Cheng (2005) used this method to compute almost seven thousand base 10 digits of Mills' constant under the assumption that the Riemann hypothesis is true.

for every positive ε is equivalent to the Riemann hypothesis (J.E.

Advocates for gays and lesbians have pointed to the inheritance rights of spouses as desirable for same-sex couples as well, through same-sex marriage or civil unions.

The will of Andreas Papandreou (pictured), a former prime minister of Greece, is the basis of legal proceedings brought against a Greek Wikipedian by Papandreou's former son-in-law, Theodore Katsanevas. (Wikipedia Signpost/2014-02-19)

The law was framed by Cambridge University Professor John Edensor Littlewood, and published in a 1986 collection of his work, A Mathematician's Miscellany.

Littlewood collaborated for many years with

The generalization of the Fourier transform to the noncommutative situation has also in part contributed to the development of noncommutative geometry.

More specifically, in topology, compact Hausdorff topological spaces can be reconstructed from the Banach algebra of functions on the space (Gel'fand-Neimark).

He joined the Labour Party in February 2010 and was the party candidate for Roscommon–South Leitrim at the 2011 general election but was not elected. He is the Labour Party Seanad spokesperson on Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht Affairs, Training and Skills.

For an R module A, a maximal submodule M of A is a submodule M≠A for which for any other submodule N, if M⊆N⊆A then N=M or N=A. Equivalently, M is a maximal submodule if and only if the quotient module A/M is a simple module.

The Jordan–Hölder theorem and the Schreier refinement theorem describe the relationships amongst all composition series of a single module.

Fianna Fáil leader Micheál Martin stated that they would not rule out supporting a minority Fine Gael government if their policies were in line with Fianna Fáil's programme for economic recovery. On 31 January 2011 Martin named Mary Hanafin as the new deputy leader, while the government chief whip John Curran was named as justice spokesman.

with strict inclusions, such that each Hi is a maximal strict normal subgroup of Hi+1.

In economics, one may relax the axiom of antisymmetry, using preorders (generally total preorders) instead of partial orders; the notion analogous to maximal element is very similar, but different terminology is used, as detailed below.

The equivalence classes of this "incomparability relation" partition the elements of S, and are totally ordered by <.

The 13 possible strict weak orderings on a set of three elements {a, b, c}. The only partially ordered sets are coloured, while totally ordered ones are in black. Two orderings are shown as connected by an edge if they differ by a single dichotomy.

In topology, a quotient space is a topological space formed on the set of equivalence classes of an equivalence relation on a topological space using the original space's topology to create the topology on the set of equivalence classes.

One of the first papers in topology was the demonstration, by Leonhard Euler, that it was impossible to find a route through the town of Königsberg (now Kaliningrad) that would cross each of its seven bridges exactly once.

The development of infinitesimal calculus was at the forefront of 18th Century mathematical research, and the Bernoullis—family friends of Euler—were responsible for much of the early progress in the field.

Martin led the party into the 2011 general election, which saw Fianna Fáil swept from power in the worst defeat of a sitting government in the history of the Irish state.

The Bernoullis (/bərˈnuːli/; Swiss ;) were a patrician family of merchants and scholars, originally from Antwerp, who settled in Basel, Switzerland.

The current statutory framework for the setting of a date for polling day in the general election is set out in the Electoral Act 1992 (as amended). Section 96 of the Electoral Act 1992 requires that the poll is held, not earlier than the seventeenth day or later than the twenty-fifth day, following the day on which the Dáil is formally dissolved by the President. The writs for the election are issued by the Clerk of the Dáil on the day the Dáil is dissolved.

Circle frame.svg

Vote Share of different parties in the election.   Fine Gael (36.1%)   Labour Party (19.5%)   Fianna Fáil (17.5%)   Sinn Féin (9.9%)   Green Party (1.8%)   Socialist Party (1.2%)   People Before Profit (1.0%)   Other (13%)

A weather phenomenon known as the föhn (with an identical effect to the chinook wind) can occur at all times of the year and is characterised by an unexpectedly warm wind, bringing air of very low relative humidity to the north of the Alps during rainfall periods on the southern face of the Alps.

Contrasted landscapes between the regions of the Matterhorn and Lake Lucerne

In Australia, the writs are issued by the Governor-General for the House of Representatives and by the respective state governors for the Senate.

The House of Representatives is one of the two houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Australia.

The frequent midwinter thaws in Great Plains Chinook country are more of a bane than a blessing to gardeners. Plants can be visibly brought out of dormancy by persistent Chinook winds, or have their hardiness reduced even if they appear to be remaining dormant. In either case, they become vulnerable to later cold waves. Many plants which do well at Winnipeg (where constant cold maintains dormancy all winter) are difficult to grow in the Alberta Chinook belt; examples include basswood, some apple, raspberry and Saskatoon varieties, and Amur maples.

Radio broadcasts of Parliamentary proceedings began on 10 July 1946. They were originally broadcast on ABC Radio.

The original wild ancestor of Malus domestica was Malus sieversii, found growing wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China. Cultivation of the species, most likely beginning on the forested flanks of the Tian Shan mountains, progressed over a long period of time and permitted secondary introgression of genes from other species into the open-pollinated seeds.

The People's Liberation Army trained and supported the Afghan Mujahidin during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.

An ensemble has a maximum bit rate that can be carried, but this depends on which error protection level is used.

China became a major international arms exporter during the 1980s. Beijing joined the Middle East arms control talks, which began in July 1991 to establish global guidelines for conventional arms transfers, and later announced that it would no longer participate because of the U.S. decision to sell 150 F-16A/B aircraft to Taiwan on 2 September 1992.

If lossy data compression is used on audio or visual data, differences from the original signal will be introduced; if the compression is substantial, or lossy data is decompressed and recompressed, this may become noticeable in the form of compression artifacts.

Some well known designs that have this capability include JPEG 2000 for still images and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC based Scalable Video Coding for video.

Modern video transmission and storage systems using the Internet and mobile networks are typically based on RTP/IP for real-time services (conversational and streaming) and on computer file formats like mp4 or 3gp.

AMRAAM uses two-stage guidance when fired at long range.

LOSBR uses a "beam" of some sort, typically radio, radar or laser, which is pointed at the target and detectors on the rear of the missile keep it centered in the beam.

Clutter may also originate from multipath echoes from valid targets caused by ground reflection, atmospheric ducting or ionospheric reflection/refraction (e.g., Anomalous propagation).

Sony BMG's DRM software actually had only a limited ability to prevent copying, as it affected only playback on Windows computers, not on other equipment.

The Sony BMG CD copy protection rootkit scandal of 2005–2007 concerns deceptive, illegal, and potentially harmful copy protection measures implemented by Sony BMG on about 22 million CDs.

Line-of-sight is the direct propagation of radio waves between antennas that are visible to each other.

In practice, the propagation characteristics of these radio waves vary substantially depending on the exact frequency and the strength of the transmitted signal (a function of both the transmitter and the antenna characteristics). Broadcast FM radio, at comparatively low frequencies of around 100 MHz, are less affected by the presence of buildings and forests.

Red Book was the first standard in the Rainbow Books range.

For the case of a carrier modulated by a single sine wave, the resulting frequency spectrum can be calculated using Bessel functions of the first kind, as a function of the sideband number and the modulation index.

The Rainbow Books are a collection of Compact Disc format specifications.

A formal specification is a mathematical description of software or hardware that may be used to develop an implementation.

The Hankel functions are used to express outward- and inward-propagating cylindrical wave solutions of the cylindrical wave equation, respectively (or vice versa, depending on the sign convention for the frequency).

Programming tools are also software in the form of programs or applications that software developers (also known as programmers, coders, hackers or software engineers) use to create, debug, maintain (i.e.

A diagram showing how the operating system software and application software are layered on a typical desktop computer. The arrows indicate information flow.

An older method of measuring the frequency of rotating or vibrating objects is to use a stroboscope.

The frequency of the flash is adjusted so that it is an equal to, or a unit fraction of the object's cyclic speed, at which point the object is seen to be either stationary or moving slowly backward or forward, depending on the flash frequency.

A bouncing ball captured with a stroboscopic flash at 25 images per second.

The word "software" was coined as a prank as early as 1953, but did not appear in print until the 1960s. Before this time, computers were programmed either by customers, or the few commercial computer vendors of the time, such as UNIVAC and IBM.

The ancient Egyptians used sums of distinct unit fractions in their notation for more general rational numbers, and so such sums are often called Egyptian fractions.

With the death of EMCC's chairman and chief financial backer

Then dp(x,y) = |x − y|p defines a metric on Q.

The German Z3 (shown working in May 1941) was designed by Konrad Zuse.

Isometries are always injective; the image of a compact or complete set under an isometry is compact or complete, respectively.

Between 1987 and 1989, Zuse recreated the Z1, suffering a heart attack midway through the project. It cost 800,000 DM, (approximately $500,000) and required four individuals (including Zuse) to assemble it.

More generally, when X and Y are both the real line R, then an injective function f : R → R is one whose graph is never intersected by any horizontal line more than once.

On 27 December 2000, the German government enacted a law authorizing the Bundesbank to issue, in 2001, a special .999 pure gold 1 Deutsche Mark coin commemorating the end of the German mark. The coin had the exact design and dimensions of the circulating cupro-nickel DM 1 coin, with the exception of the inscription on the reverse, which read "Deutsche Bundesbank" (instead of "Bundesrepublik Deutschland"), as the Bundesbank was the issuing authority in this case. A total of one million gold German mark coins were minted (200,000 at each of the five mints) and were sold beginning in mid-2001 through German coin dealers on behalf of the Bundesbank. The issue price varied by dealer but averaged approximately 165 United States dollars.

The metric tensor is clearly the 1-dimensional Euclidean metric.

From 1792, when the Mint Act was passed, the dollar was defined as 371.25 grains (24.056 g) of silver.

In one dimension, the distance between two points on the real line is the absolute value of their numerical difference.

The real line is a vector space over the field R of real numbers (that is, over itself) of dimension 1.

Section 19 of the Act established a penalty of death for debasing the gold or silver coins authorized by the Act, or embezzlement of the metals for those coins, by officers or employees of the mint; this section of the Act apparently remains in effect and would, in theory, continue to apply in the case of "any of the gold or silver coins which shall be struck or coined at the said mint." (At present the only gold or silver coins struck by the US mint are the American Silver Eagle and the American Gold Eagle coins, some Proof coinage at the San Francisco Mint, such as the silver US State Quarters, and much of the Commemorative coinage of the United States.) All other sections of the act have been superseded, as for example the Coinage Act of 1834 changing the silver-to-gold weight ratio.

The United States has minted numerous commemorative coins in remembrance of particular persons, places, events, and institutions.

Although he held no official university position, Kronecker had the right as a member of the Academy to hold classes at the University of Berlin and he decided to do so, starting in 1862. In 1866, when Riemann died, Kronecker was offered the mathematics chair at the University of Göttingen (previously held by Carl Gauss and Dirichlet), but he refused, preferring to keep his position at the Academy.

Coin collectors are often divided on the relative merits of non circulating legal tender. Many countries issue large quantities of non circulating legal tender purely as a profit making exercise. The events that these coins commemorate are often chosen based on a perceived market, rather than events of significance to the country. Detractors comment that circulating coins are intended to showcase the culture of the country which issues them, and therefore have historical interest. Proponents will point out that non circulating coins are often used to showcase the art form and technology of minting. Technology developed for non circulating coins has moved to circulation issues - coloured coins were first issued as non circulating legal tender, but Canada has recently issued coloured commemorative coins into (albeit limited) circulation.

Gauss also claimed to have discovered the possibility of non-Euclidean geometries but never published it.

Daguerreotype of Gauss on his deathbed, 1855.

Each of the 308 members of parliament in the House of Commons is elected by simple plurality in an electoral district or riding.

Two sides of a silver medal: the profile of Queen Victoria and the inscription "Victoria Regina" on one side, a man in European garb shaking hands with an Aboriginal with the inscription Indian Treaty No. 187 on the other

The Indian Chiefs Medal, presented to commemorate the Numbered Treaties of 1871–1921

The non-Euclidean planar algebras support kinematic geometries in the plane. For instance, the split-complex number z = eaj can represent a spacetime event one moment into the future of a frame of reference of rapidity a.

It is also important to note that the definition of inertial reference frame can be extended beyond three-dimensional Euclidean space. Newton's assumed a Euclidean space, but general relativity uses a more general geometry.

Once the final report is produced, it is then submitted to Parliament for approval, which is given by voting on the report as a piece of legislation known as a Representation Order. From Canadian Confederation, the boundaries were defined by the Constitution Act, 1867.

The form of government chosen is regarded as having created a federation that is a kingdom in its own right.

Queen Victoria granted royal assent to the British North America Act on March 29, 1867

During that period, general relativity remained something of a curiosity among physical theories. It was clearly superior to Newtonian gravity, being consistent with special relativity and accounting for several effects unexplained by the Newtonian theory.

The conference concluded on Wednesday September 7, but the representatives agreed to meet again the next month in Quebec City (see Quebec Conference).

Château Frontenac in Quebec City

Château Frontenac

Theoretical investigation in classical electromagnetism led to the discovery of wave propagation.

where q0 is what is known as a test charge. The size of the charge doesn't really matter, as long as it is small enough not to influence the electric field by its mere presence. What is plain from this definition, though, is that the unit of E is N/C (newtons per coulomb).

Most Autoroute signs in the province are in French, though English is used on federally-financed or -owned routes, such as the Bonaventure Expressway in Montreal.

The elementary charge, the charge of a proton (equivalently, the negative of the charge of an electron), is approximately 1.602176565(35)×10−19 C.

Montreal-based VIA Rail provides rail service to other cities in Canada, particularly to Quebec City and Toronto along the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor.

Silicon is a semiconductor.

Inside the corridor, the busiest area of travel is the Toronto–Ottawa–Montreal triangle. Air Canada serves the three cities with its Rapidair service, offering hourly flights, and its principal competitor WestJet offers similar service.

For example, the pure semiconductor silicon has four valence electrons which bond each silicon atom to its neighbors.

Notes: * indicates Star Alliance partners; Air Canada is one of the founding members of Star Alliance.

Aluminium-silicon alloys (called silumin alloys) are heavily used in the aluminium alloy casting industry, where silicon is the single most important additive to aluminium to improve its casting properties.

In May 2007, Star Alliance and its members celebrated the alliance's 10th anniversary. During the previous decade, Star Alliance had grown from a membership of five airlines to include 18 carriers around the world. Each day the Star Alliance's members had a combined daily departure of 16,000 to 855 destinations in 155 countries, serving 406 million passengers annually.

Silumin is the name that is used in some countries for alloys based on Al–Si system. Silumin is a series of lightweight, high-strength aluminium alloys with silicon content within range of 3–50%. Most of these alloys are casting ones, but also it would be produced by rapid solidification processes and powder metallurgy.

Although common carriers generally transport people or goods, in the United States the term may also refer to telecommunications service providers and public utilities.

Goods, both tangibles and intangibles, may involve the transfer of product ownership to the consumer.

Aluminium alloy compositions are registered with The Aluminum Association.

Over the millennia, and across cultures what can be property and how it is regarded culturally have varied widely. Ownership is the basis for many other concepts that form the foundations of ancient and modern societies such as money, trade, debt, bankruptcy, the criminality of theft, and private vs.

In addition to registering alloy compositions and designations, the TCPS also registers alloy-temper product standards. Most industry product standards for aluminum mill products are published in Aluminum Standards and Data, available in both customary and metric editions.

There have been many historical disputes regarding the combination of money's functions, some arguing that they need more separation and that a single unit is insufficient to deal with them all. One of these arguments is that the role of money as a medium of exchange is in conflict with its role as a store of value: its role as a store of value requires holding it without spending, whereas its role as a medium of exchange requires it to circulate. Others argue that storing of value is just deferral of the exchange, but does not diminish the fact that money is a medium of exchange that can be transported both across space and time. The term "financial capital" is a more general and inclusive term for all liquid instruments, whether or not they are a uniformly recognized tender.

State legislation is also important for determining the conversion factor to be used for everyday land surveying and real estate transactions, although the difference (2 ppm) is of no practical significance given the precision of normal surveying measurements over short distances (usually much less than a mile).

A store of value is the function of an asset that can be saved, retrieved and exchanged at a later time, and be predictably useful when retrieved. The most common store of value in modern times has been money, currency, or a commodity like gold, or financial capital.

Because the named numbers starting with a “billion” have different values in different countries, the BIPM suggests avoiding the use of “ppb” and “ppt” to prevent misunderstanding.

Another recent study has claimed water in faults vaporizes during an earthquake, depositing gold. When an earthquake strikes, it moves along a fault.

Traditional British usage assigned new names for each power of one million (the long scale): 1,000,000 = 1 million; 1,000,0002 = 1 billion; 1,000,0003 = 1 trillion; and so on.

The vector of slip can be qualitatively assessed by studying the drag folding of strata on either side of the fault; the direction and magnitude of heave and throw can be measured only by finding common intersection points on either side of the fault (called a piercing point).

Most Arabic-language countries and regions use the short scale with 109 = میليار   milyar.

Mason Hill and Thomas Dibblee were the first to use piercing points along the San Andreas fault, notably the Pelona schist in the San Gabriel Mountains and Orocopia schist in the Orocopia Mountains, in 1953; they showed at least 250 km (160 mi) of slip using that piercing point. Another famous example of San Andreas fault piercing points include the unique rocks at Point Lobos State Reserve and Point Reyes National Seashore. Though 180 km apart, the rocks match exactly: they were cut and separated by the fault.

Adjectives in Literary Arabic are marked for case, number, gender and state, as for nouns.

Point Lobos contains a number of hiking trails, many next to the ocean, and a smaller number of beaches. It is the site of a historic marine reserve, which was expanded in 2007.

An adjectival noun (Japanese: 形容動詞, keiyō-dōshi, which literally means "adjectival verb") or sometimes just adjectival is a noun that functions as an adjective by taking the particle 〜な -na (regular nouns can function adjectivally by taking the particle 〜の -no, which is analyzed as the genitive case).

Isolated populations (e.g.,those on remote atolls) have high conservation value where they harbor endemic species and/or unique assemblages.

Use of genitive for negation is obligatory in Slovene, Polish and Old Church Slavonic.

The most important authors in Old Church Slavonic after the death of Methodius and the dissolution of the Great Moravian academy were Clement of Ohrid (active also in Great Moravia), Constantine of Preslav, Chernorizetz Hrabar and John Exarch, all of whom worked in medieval Bulgaria at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century.

The distribution of atolls around the globe is instructive: most of the world's atolls are in the Pacific Ocean (with concentrations in the Tuamotu Islands, Caroline Islands, Marshall Islands, Coral Sea Islands, and the island groups of Kiribati, Tuvalu and Tokelau) and Indian Ocean (the Atolls of the Maldives, the Lakshadweep Islands, the Chagos Archipelago and the Outer Islands of the Seychelles).

NASA satellite image of some of the atolls of the Maldives, which consists of 1,322 islands arranged into 26 atolls.

The Seychelles previous president France Albert René, came to power after his supporters overthrew the first president James Mancham on 5 June 1977 in coup d'état and installed him as president.

Sir James Richard Marie Mancham KBE (born August 11, 1939, Victoria, Seychelles then a colony of the United Kingdom) was the first President of Seychelles from 1976 to 1977.

Bulgaria is a unitary state. Since the 1880s, the number of territorial management units has varied from seven to 26. Between 1987 and 1999 the administrative structure consisted of nine provinces (oblasti, singular oblast).

  Unitary states   Federations

The United States is considered the first modern federation.

The 2nd meridian east forms a great circle with the 178th meridian west.

For any two points on the surface of a sphere there is a unique great circle through the two points. An exception is a pair of antipodal points, for which there are infinitely many great circles.

The antipodal map A : Sn → Sn, defined by A(x) = −x, sends every point on the sphere to its antipodal point. It is homotopic to the identity map if n is odd, and its degree is (−1)n+1.

The short form "United States" is also standard. Other common forms include the "U.S.", the "USA", and "America". Colloquial names include the "U.S. of A." and, internationally, the "States". "Columbia", a name popular in poetry and songs of the late 1700s, derives its origin from Christopher Columbus; it appears in the name "District of Columbia". In non-English languages, the name is frequently the translation of either the "United States" or "United States of America", and colloquially as "America".

In mathematics, an identity function, also called an identity relation or identity map or identity transformation, is a function that always returns the same value that was used as its argument.

Applied mathematics has significant overlap with the discipline of statistics, whose theory is formulated mathematically, especially with probability theory.

No serious consideration was given to using the name Columbia as an official name for the independent United States,

While in principle the acceptable level of statistical significance may be subject to debate, the p-value is the smallest significance level that allows the test to reject the null hypothesis.

A defeated Sarmatian barbarian serves as an atlas on a 16th-century villa in Milan. Sculpted by Antonio Abbondio for Leone Leoni

One aspect associated with the optical research of Alhazen (c.

Other difficulties with endonyms have to do with pronunciation, spelling and word category. The endonym may include sounds and spellings which are highly unfamiliar to speakers of other languages, making appropriate usage difficult if not impossible for an outsider. Over the years, the endonym may have undergone phonetic changes, either in the original language or the borrowing language, thus changing an endonym into an exonym, as in the case of Paris, where the s was formerly pronounced in French. Another example is the endonym for the German city of Cologne, where the Latin original of Colonia has evolved into Köln in German, while the Italian and Spanish exonym Colonia closely reflects the Latin original.

An animated image of the Moon's surface showing the effects of Earth's atmosphere on the view

Cologne's location on the river Rhine placed it at the intersection of the major trade routes between east and west and was the basis of Cologne's growth.

Many crystals are naturally birefringent, but isotropic materials such as plastics and glass can also often be made birefringent by introducing a preferred direction through, e.g., an external force or electric field.

This sand grain made of volcanic glass is isotropic, and thus, stays extinct when rotated between polarization filters on a petrographic microscope

Most of the mathematical notation in use today was not invented until the 16th century. Before that, mathematics was written out in words, a painstaking process that limited mathematical discovery. Euler (1707–1783) was responsible for many of the notations in use today.

Euler was born on 15 April 1707, in Basel to Paul Euler, a pastor of the Reformed Church, and Marguerite Brucker, a pastor's daughter.

Euler's Diagram

Until very recently in Taiwan (and still in Mainland China), left-handed people were strongly encouraged to switch to being right-handed, or at least switch to writing with the right hand.

In 1992, a high level political meeting between the ROC and PRC was held in Hong Kong where what became called the "1992 Consensus" developed.

Calvinism can be a misleading term because the religious tradition it denotes is and has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. The movement was first called "Calvinism" by Lutherans who opposed it, and many within the tradition would prefer to use the word Reformed. Since the Arminian controversy, the Reformed (as a branch of Protestantism distinguished from Lutheranism) are divided into Arminians and Calvinists; however it is now rare to call Arminians Reformed, as many see these two schools of thought as opposed, making the terms Calvinist and Reformed synonymous. Reformed churches may exercise several forms of ecclesiastical polity.

Many Methodist churches use a derivative of episcopal polity known as Connexionalism, or Connexional polity, which combines a loose episcopal hierarchy with a bottom-up structure, centered around small groups of congregations called circuits.

Connexional polity in Britain has always been characterized by a strong central organisation which holds an annual Conference. The connexion is divided into Districts in the charge of a Chairman. In other countries the Chairman is sometimes called a Bishop, or District Bishop. Methodist districts often correspond approximately, in geographical terms, to counties – as do Church of England dioceses.

The British system of council administration was introduced to Hong Kong through the Urban Council and Regional Council, which have played a significant role in improving the sanitary conditions and developing numerous cultural and recreational facilities.

An archdiocese (or archiepiscopal see or archbishopric) is more significant than a diocese. An archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance.

Sankt Laurentii kyrka Diocese of Linköping, Söderköpings kommun, Sweden

It also managed the Hong Kong Public Library locations in Hong Kong Island and Kowloon.

The Urban Council's service area (in pink).

Among the more prominent deacons in history are Stephen, the first Christian martyr (the "protomartyr"); Philip, whose baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch is recounted in Acts 8:26–40; Saint Lawrence, an early Roman martyr; Saint Vincent of Saragossa, protomartyr of Spain; Saint Francis of Assisi, founder of the mendicant Franciscans; Saint Ephrem the Syrian and Saint Romanos the Melodist, a prominent early hymnographer.

The public libraries were originally administered by either the Urban Council or Regional Council, depending on the location.

The Hong Kong Museum of Art gives regular exhibition of both Chinese and Western art and sculpture and frequently arranges art exchanges with overseas countries.

A branch museum, the Flagstaff House Museum of Tea Ware, is situated in the Hong Kong Park.

The entrance to the museum

He later moved to Constantinople during the reign of the emperor Anastasius—on the question whether Anastasius I (491-518) or Anastasius II (713-716) is meant, the renowned Byzantinologist, Prof.

Romanos and Virgin Mary, Miniature from the Menologion of Basil II

Hong Kong Park captures the natural landscape in the busy and crowd business centre and provides a relaxing environment. Its main feature is Edward Youde Aviary which is the Hong Kong's largest aviary while the Vantage Point is another great place to see the "bird exhibition".

Inside the aviary

The waterfowl lake linked with Edward Youde Aviary by an inner lake is landscaped to form a swamp to accommodate different species of Waterfowls.

Artemius Anastasius (Greek: Ἀρτέμιος Ἀναστάσιος Β΄), known in English as Anastasios II or Anastasius II (died 719), was the Byzantine Emperor from 713 to 715.

Waterfowl are certain wildfowl of the order Anseriformes, especially members of the family Anatidae, which includes ducks, geese, and swans.

Greek words have been widely borrowed into other languages, including English: mathematics, physics, astronomy, democracy, philosophy, athletics, theatre, rhetoric, baptism, evangelist, etc.

Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the Anatidae family of birds, which also includes swans and geese.

Although swans only reach sexual maturity between 4 and 7 years of age, they can form socially monogamous pair bonds from as early as 20 months that last for many years, and in some cases these can last for life. The lifespan of the mute swan is often over 10 years, and sometimes over 20, whereas the black-necked swan survives for less than a decade in captivity. These bonds are maintained year round, even in gregarious and migratory species like the tundra swan, which congregate in large flocks in the wintering grounds. The nest is on the ground near water and about a metre across.

Intuitionist definitions, developing from the philosophy of mathematician

Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton (left) and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (right), developers of infinitesimal calculus

Monogamous pairs of animals are not always sexually exclusive. Many animals that form pairs to mate and raise offspring regularly engage in sexual activities with partners other than their primary mate. This is called extra-pair copulation. Sometimes these extra-pair sexual activities lead to offspring.

To an intuitionist, the claim that an object with certain properties exists is a claim that an object with those properties can be constructed. Any mathematical object is considered to be a product of a construction of a mind, and therefore, the existence of an object is equivalent to the possibility of its construction.

Accurately assessing people's sexual behavior is difficult, since strong social and personal motivations occur, depending on social sanctions and taboos, for either minimizing or exaggerating reported sexual activity.

The debate about the nature of the mind is relevant to the development of artificial intelligence.

A phrenological mapping[1] of the brain. Phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain.

In Surah 5:5 of the Qurʼan, it is written: "The food of the People of the Book is lawful for you as your food is lawful for them." Whether this verse refers to any food of the People of the Book is disputed.

5:3 "Forbidden for you are carrion, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that which has been slaughtered while proclaiming the name of any other than God, and one killed by strangling, and one killed with blunt weapons, and one which died by falling, and that which was gored by the horns of some animal, and one eaten by a wild beast, except those whom you slaughter; and that which is slaughtered at the altar and that which is distributed by the throwing of arrows ; this is an act of sin." —– al-Maʼidah 5:3 "Eat not of that (meat) on which Allah's name has not been pronounced." Thus an animal slaughtered by a Christian who did not mention anything at the time of slaughter would be permissible to some, while other scholars would hold it impermissible.

A quite different approach measures machine intelligence through tests which are developed from mathematical definitions of intelligence. Examples of these kinds of tests start in the late nineties devising intelligence tests using notions from Kolmogorov complexity and data compression. Two major advantages of mathematical definitions are their applicability to nonhuman intelligences and their absence of a requirement for human testers.

Many countries have adopted the principle of a two-stage process for the non-ritual slaughter of animals. This is to ensure a rapid death with minimal suffering. The first stage of the process, usually called stunning, renders the animal unconscious, and thus not susceptible to pain, but not necessarily dead.

The proof of this result is modeled on a self-referential construction used in Berry's paradox.

With percussive stunning, a device which hits the animal on the head, with or without penetration, is employed. Such devices, such as the captive bolt pistol, can be either pneumatic, or powder-actuated.

Captive bolt stunners are safer to use in most red meat slaughter situations. There is no danger of ricochet or overpenetration as there is with regular firearms.

It is not possible in general to unambiguously define what is the minimal number of symbols required to describe a given string (given a specific description mechanism). In this context, the terms string and number may be used interchangeably, since a number is actually a string of symbols, e.g. an English word (like the word "eleven" used in the paradox) while, on the other hand, it is possible to refer to any word with a number, e.g. by the number of its position in a given dictionary or by suitable encoding. Some long strings can be described exactly using fewer symbols than those required by their full representation, as is often experienced using data compression.

Ricochets are often more common with low-power calibers such as .22 or .177 calibre, which can have trouble penetrating some materials, although a ricochet can occur with any caliber.

Tracer elements separating from .50 caliber machine gun rounds after hitting the target or backstop.

Lossless audio compression produces a representation of digital data that decompress to an exact digital duplicate of the original audio stream, unlike playback from lossy compression techniques such as Vorbis and MP3.

The .17 caliber (actually 0.172-inch (4.4 mm) or 4.37 mm diameter) is the smallest size bullet that is widely available for use in firearms, both in rimfire (.17 HMR) and centerfire (.17 Remington) ammunition.

Compression efficiency of encoders is typically defined by the bit rate, because compression ratio depends on the bit depth and sampling rate of the input signal.

The U.S. military has been replacing lead with copper as a slug in their green bullets.

A belt of 0.50 caliber ammunition loaded to an M2 Browning. Every fifth round with a red tip is an M20 (armour piercing incendiary tracer).

The Joint Working Group for Non-Toxic Ammunition was formed by the Small Caliber Ammunition Branch of the United States Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center in October 1995.

M855A1 projectiles for 5.56×45mm NATO rifles replace traditional lead alloy cores with an environmentally friendly copper core with a 19-grain (1.2 g) steel "stacked-cone" penetrating tip.

The United States Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC), headquartered at the Picatinny Arsenal in New Jersey, is the US Army's primary research and development arm for armament and munitions systems.

Complex sampling (I/Q sampling) refers to the simultaneous sampling of two different, but related, waveforms, resulting in pairs of samples that are subsequently treated as complex numbers.  When one waveform  is the Hilbert transform of the other waveform  the complex-valued function,    is called an analytic signal,  whose Fourier transform is zero for all negative values of frequency.

The army employs various individual weapons to provide light firepower at short ranges. The most common weapons used by the army are the compact variant of the M16 rifle, the M4 carbine, as well as the 7.62x51 mm variant of the FN SCAR for Army Rangers.

American soldiers hunt Japanese infiltrators during the Bougainville Campaign

If a system has zeros in the right half plane, it is a nonminimum phase system.

Multiplication of 2 + i (blue triangle) and 3 + i (red triangle). The red triangle is rotated to match the vertex of the blue one and stretched by √5, the length of the hypotenuse of the blue triangle.

ArmaLite sold its rights to the AR-15 to Colt in 1959. The AR-15 was first adopted in 1962 by the United States Air Force, ultimately receiving the designation M16.

A minimum-phase system, whether discrete-time or continuous-time, has an additional useful property that the natural logarithm of the magnitude of the frequency response (the "gain" measured in nepers which is proportional to dB) is related to the phase angle of the frequency response (measured in radians) by the Hilbert transform.

A change in power ratio by a factor of 10 is a change of 10 dB. A change in power ratio by a factor of two is approximately a change of 3 dB.

The Airman Battle Uniform (ABU) became the sole authorized utility uniform (except the flight suit for air, missile and space crews) of the USAF on 1 November 2011.

Starting in 2009, Airman who were deployed or training for deployment were issued the new Airman Battle Shirt (ABS). The ABS was developed by Massif Mountain Gear and based on the Army Combat Shirt (ACS). Like the ACS, the ABS is a stand-alone shirt designed specifically for use with Improved Outer Tactical Vest armor in warm and hot weather.

The bandwidth of an amplifier is usually defined as the difference between the lower and upper half power points.

In many signal processing contexts, bandwidth is a valuable and limited resource. For example, an FM radio receiver's tuner spans a limited range of frequencies.

A graph of a bandpass filter's gain magnitude, illustrating the concept of −3 dB bandwidth at a gain of 0.707. The frequency axis of this symbolic diagram can be linear or logarithmically scaled.

The OTV design was considered insufficient and lacking in certain areas, which led to the IOTV's development and fielding. The IOTV is currently produced by Point Blank Body Armor, BAE Systems, KDH Defense Systems, Protective Products Enterprises, UNICOR and Creative Apparel Associates. The IOTV first saw action in combat with U.S. Army ground combat units in late 2007/early 2008, and along with the Interceptor body armor currently remains the standard body armor type used by regular U.S.

Later model televisions and radios were tuned by a rack of momentary push buttons; some of the earlier types were purely mechanical and adjusted the capacitance or inductance of the tuned circuit to a preset number of positions corresponding to the frequencies of popular local stations. Later electronic types utilized the varactor diode as a voltage controlled capacitance in the tuned circuit, to receive a number of preset voltages from the rack of buttons tuning the device instantly to local stations.

On 4 May 2005 the U.S.

In some applications, such as harmonic multiplication, a large signal amplitude AC voltage is applied across a varicap to deliberately vary the capacitance at signal rate and generate higher harmonics which are filtered off and used further down the signal chain.

Frequency multiplication is also used in nonlinear optics.

An important part of the Marine Corps culture is the traditional seafaring naval terminology derived from its history with the Navy.

One of the most commonly used frequency-mixing processes is frequency doubling or second-harmonic generation. With this technique, the 1064-nm output from Nd:YAG lasers or the 800-nm output from Ti:sapphire lasers can be converted to visible light, with wavelengths of 532 nm (green) or 400 nm (violet), respectively.

This is a partial glossary of nautical terms; some remain current, while many date from the 17th–19th century. See also Wiktionary's nautical terms, Category:Nautical terms, and Nautical metaphors in English.

Military surplus Nd:YAG laser rangefinder firing. The laser fires through a collimator, focusing the beam, which blasts a hole through a rubber block, releasing a burst of plasma.

Protective eyewear is beneficial to those exposed to ultraviolet radiation.

A list of metaphors in the English language organised by type. A metaphor is a literary figure of speech that uses an image, story or tangible thing to represent a less tangible thing or some intangible quality or idea; e.g., "Her eyes were glistening jewels".

The most common forms of eye protection against light are sunglasses.

Marxism-Leninism has been criticized by other communist and Marxist tendencies. They argue that Marxist-Leninist states did not establish socialism but rather state capitalism. The dictatorship of the proletariat, according to Marxism, represents the rule of the majority (democracy) rather than of one party, to the extent that co-founder of Marxism Friedrich Engels described its "specific form" as the democratic republic. Additionally, according to Engels, state property by itself is private property of capitalist nature unless the proletariat has control of political power, in which case it forms public property. Whether the proletariat was actually in control of the Marxist-Leninist states is a matter of debate between Marxism-Leninism and other communist tendencies.

Special protection is required for space travel because the sunlight is far more intense and harmful than on Earth, where it is always filtered through the atmosphere.

An alternate definition is that state capitalism is a close relationship between the government and private capitalism, such as one in which the private capitalists produce for a guaranteed market. An example of this would be the military-industrial complex in which autonomous entrepreneurial firms produce for lucrative government contracts and are not subject to the discipline of competitive markets.

Benito Mussolini claimed that the modern phase of capitalism is state socialism "turned on its head".

The atmospheric composition of an extra-solar planet was first determined using the Hubble Space Telescope.

His work is especially popular in Japan, even more so after the publication of "What If the Female Manager of a High-School Baseball Team Read Drucker’s Management", a novel that features the main character using one of his books to great effect, which was also adapted into an anime and a live action film. His popularity in Japan may be compared with that of his contemporary

For centuries philosophers and scientists supposed that extrasolar planets existed, but there was no way of detecting them or of knowing their frequency or how similar they might be to the planets of the Solar System.

The Solar System also contains regions populated by smaller objects. The asteroid belt, which lies between Mars and Jupiter, mostly contains objects composed, like the terrestrial planets, of rock and metal.

The asteroid belt is the region of the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.

The asteroid belt (showing eccentricities), with the asteroid belt in red and blue ("core" region in red)

The Sun, which comprises nearly all the matter in the Solar System, is composed of roughly 98% hydrogen and helium. Jupiter and Saturn, which comprise nearly all the remaining matter, possess atmospheres composed of roughly 99% of these elements. A composition gradient exists in the Solar System, created by heat and light pressure from the Sun; those objects closer to the Sun, which are more affected by heat and light pressure, are composed of elements with high melting points.

Critics say that the Post allows its editorial positions to shape its story selection and news coverage. Post executive editor

One of the paper's most famous headlines, from the April 15, 1983 edition.

In some countries, especially Australia, Canada, the UK, and the US, broadsheet newspapers are commonly perceived to be more intellectual in content than their tabloid counterparts, using their greater size to examine stories in more depth, while carrying less sensationalist and celebrity material.

Comparison of some newspaper sizes with metric paper sizes. Approximate nominal dimensions are in millimetres.

The YORP effect is a collection of effects expanding upon the earlier concept of the Yarkovsky effect, but of a similar nature.

In the 19th century, Ivan Yarkovsky realised that the infrared radiation escaping from a body warmed by the Sun carries off momentum as well as heat.

During this time, Tyson came to the attention of gaming company Nintendo.

IR data transmission of encoded audio versions of printed signs is being researched as an aid for visually impaired people through the RIAS (Remote Infrared Audible Signage) project.

Remote Infrared Audible Signage (RIAS) was developed by Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute (as Talking SignsR) so that print-handicapped people, such as those that are blind or have low-vision, or are illiterate, foreign, or visually impaired, would be able to access the same type of information available through textual print signs within the built environment.

Although originally advertised as an alternative to the Game Boy Advance, the Nintendo DS replaced the Game Boy line after its initial release in 2004. It was distinctive for its dual screens and a microphone, as well as a touch-sensitive lower screen.

The Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute in San Francisco was founded in 1959 by Arthur Jampolsky, and became internationally known for the work of its scientists in vision and oculomotility.

In collaboration with fast food restaurant chain McDonald's, a service called "Nintendo Zone" will start in the Kanto, Chūkyō and Kansai regions of Japan.

This strategy is effective against a number of retinal diseases that have been studied, including neovascular diseases that are features of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity.

A cuff of appropriate size is fitted smoothly and also snugly, then inflated manually by repeatedly squeezing a rubber bulb until the artery is completely occluded. Listening with the stethoscope to the brachial artery at the antecubital area of the elbow, the examiner slowly releases the pressure in the cuff.

No medical or surgical treatment is available for this condition; however, the AREDS trial found benefits with some vitamin supplements along with high doses of antioxidants.

When the arm is extended, with the palm facing forward or up, the bones of the upper arm (humerus) and forearm (radius and ulna) are not perfectly aligned.

Supination of the forearm occurs when the forearm or palm are rotated outwards.

Body Movements I.jpg

After three years of development work, two years for the medical approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and an investment of three million USD, Bausch & Lomb brought the first contact lenses made of Poly-HEMA on the market in 1971.

The capsule is a soft tissue envelope that encircles the glenohumeral joint and attaches to the scapula, humerus, and head of the biceps.

In 1959, the thalidomide tragedy, in which thousands of European babies were born deformed after their mothers took that drug – marketed for treatment of nausea – during their pregnancies, Considering the US was largely spared that tragedy because Dr.

The term biceps brachii is a Latin phrase meaning "two-headed of the arm", in reference to the fact that the muscle consists of two bundles of muscle, each with its own origin, sharing a common insertion point near the elbow joint. The proper plural form of the Latin adjective biceps is bicipites, a form not in general English use.

Adjectives are one of the traditional eight English parts of speech, although linguists today distinguish adjectives from words such as determiners that formerly were considered to be adjectives.

Today, thalidomide is being marketed by Celgene mainly as a treatment of certain cancers (multiple myeloma) and of a complication of leprosy.

Niko von Glasow, German filmmaker

Functional theories of language propose that since language is fundamentally a tool, it is reasonable to assume that its structures are best analyzed and understood with reference to the functions they carry out. Functional theories of grammar differ from formal theories of grammar, in that the latter seek to define the different elements of language and describe the way they relate to each other as systems of formal rules or operations, whereas the former defines the functions performed by language and then relates these functions to the linguistic elements that carry them out.

Ancient Tamil inscription at Thanjavur

Though there is a tremendous body of literature on parsing algorithms, most of these algorithms assume that the language to be parsed is initially described by means of a generative formal grammar, and that the goal is to transform this generative grammar into a working parser.

Parsing or syntactic analysis is the process of analysing a string of symbols, either in natural language or in computer languages, conforming to the rules of a formal grammar.

A sign language is a language which conveys meaning through visual rather than acoustic patterns—simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to express a speaker's thoughts.

Dr. Reddy’s Para 4 application strategy for generic business received a severe setback when Reddy’s lost the patent challenge in the case of Pfizer’s drug Norvasc (amlodipine maleate), a drug indicated for the treatment of hypertension and angina.

Pfizer has inherited Wyeth's liabilities in the American Cyanamid site in Bridgewater, New Jersey.

Most of the chemical businesses of American Cyanamid are now operated by a spun-off successor company known as Cytec.

For English-speaking audiences, ASL is often glossed using English words.

Here every Lezgian morpheme is set off with hyphens and glossed separately. Since many of these are difficult to gloss in English, the roots are translated, but the grammatical suffixes are glossed with three-letter grammatical abbreviations.

Cytec Industries Incorporated, based in Woodland Park, New Jersey is a speciality chemicals and materials technology company with pro-forma sales in 2004, including the Surface Specialties acquisition, of approximately $3.0 billion.

There were 4,397 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.2% were non-families.

The traditional definition allows roots to be either free morphemes or bound morphemes.

Many roots are free morphemes, e.g., ship- in "shipment", while others are bound.

Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community or peers.

Family chart showing relatives who, in Islamic Sharia law, would be considered mahrim (or maharem): unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous.

Fried, however, proposed that most contemporary tribes do not have their origin in pre-state tribes, but rather in pre-state bands. Such "secondary" tribes, he suggested, actually came about as modern products of state expansion. Bands comprise small, mobile, and fluid social formations with weak leadership, that do not generate surpluses, pay no taxes and support no standing army.

Initiation rituals among boys from a tribe in Malawi.

Traditionally, Danish and German were the two official languages of Denmark-Norway; the and other official instruments for use in Denmark and Norway were written in Danish, and local administrators spoke Danish or Norwegian.

One of the more recent definitions of leadership comes from Werner Erhard,

After retiring from Werner Erhard & Associates, Erhard made a few public appearances. One of these was on Larry King Live in an episode titled, "Whatever Happened to Werner Erhard?" via satellite from Moscow, Russia on December 8, 1993.

One of King's recurring topics is the paranormal.

Centered around what is known as the Virgin Islands, Denmark–Norway established the Danish West Indies.

The second camp consisted of individuals who coupled ideas of extraterrestrial visitation with beliefs from existing quasi-religious movements. These individuals typically were enthusiasts of occultism and the paranormal.

European colonists later settled here and established sugar plantations, at least one tobacco plantation, and purchased slaves acquired from Africa.

From the scientific perspective, occultism is regarded as unscientific as it does not make use of the standard scientific method to obtain facts.

Major tobacco companies have encouraged global tobacco production. Philip Morris, British American Tobacco and Japan Tobacco each own or lease tobacco manufacturing facilities in at least 50 countries and buy crude tobacco leaf from at least 12 more countries. This encouragement, along with government subsidies has led to a glut in the tobacco market.

A historic kiln in Myrtleford, Victoria, Australia.

Scientific methodology often directs that hypotheses be tested in controlled conditions wherever possible.

In statistical hypothesis testing, two hypotheses are compared. These are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.

The directionality of hypotheses is not always obvious. The explicit null hypothesis of Fisher's Lady tasting tea example was that the Lady had no such ability, which led to a symmetric probability distribution.

Like Metro-North Railroad and New Jersey Transit, the Long Island Rail Road fare system is based on the distance a passenger travels, as opposed to the New York City Subway, which has a flat rate throughout the system.

In the design of experiments in statistics, the lady tasting tea is a famous randomized experiment devised by

Other desirable properties for estimators include: UMVUE estimators that have the lowest variance for all possible values of the parameter to be estimated (this is usually an easier property to verify than efficiency) and consistent estimators which converges in probability to the true value of such parameter.

In 1989 the Metropolitan Transportation Authority asked the transit police (then located within the NYCTA) to focus on minor offenses such as fare evasion. In the early nineties, the NYCTA adopted similar policing methods for Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal.

An efficient estimator need not exist, but if it does and if it is unbiased, it is the MVUE.

Vanderbilt Hall, named for the family that built and owned the station, serves as the entrance area from 42nd Street at Pershing Square.

Hercules, Minerva and Mercury, statuary by Jules-Félix Coutan, atop the terminal, with the MetLife Building behind

In 1939, the city built a steel and glass-brick structure under the viaduct at the south end of Pershing Square from 42nd Street to 41st Street, which it utilized to provide tourist information. The building, at 90 East 42nd Street, was later converted into a restaurant, which, as of 2014, is called the Pershing Square Cafe.

The entrance to the Pershing Square Cafe, formerly the Central Cafe, originally built to provide tourist information; the building extends south to 41st Street under the viaduct

This estimator has mean θ and variance of σ2 / n, which is equal to the reciprocal of the Fisher information from the sample.

with equality if and only if T is a sufficient statistic.

10th Street (40°44′03″N 74°00′11″W / 40.7342580°N 74.0029670°W / 40.7342580; -74.0029670) begins at the FDR Drive and Avenue C.

A statistic T(X) is sufficient for underlying parameter θ precisely if the conditional probability distribution of the data X, given the statistic T(X), does not depend on the parameter θ, i.e.

At the corner of Loisaida and 9th Street, there are two sizable (by Manhattan standards) community gardens that are maintained by the surrounding community.

The Public National Bank Building

A discrete probability distribution shall be understood as a probability distribution characterized by a probability mass function.

Suppose that is a probability space and that is a measurable space whose underlying σ-algebra is discrete, so in particular contains singleton sets of B.

Along the southern perimeter of Gramercy Park, between Gramercy Park East and Gramercy Park West, 20th Street is known as Gramercy Park South.

It also follows that the set X itself and the empty set are both in Σ, since by (1) Σ is non-empty, so some particular A ∈ Σ may be chosen, and by (2), X \ A is also in Σ.

The empty-set symbol ∅ is found at Unicode point U+2205. In TeX, it is coded as \emptyset or \varnothing.

Gramercy Park Hotel was originally designed by Robert T.

In early 1989, the Unicode working group expanded to include Ken Whistler and Mike Kernaghan of Metaphor, Karen Smith-Yoshimura and Joan Aliprand of RLG, and Glenn Wright of Sun Microsystems, and in 1990 Michel Suignard and Asmus Freytag from Microsoft and Rick McGowan of NeXT joined the group.

In 1958 Herbert Weissberg, a prominent New York hotel owner, bought the hotel. He added a gift shop, doubled the size of the bar and gave tenure to Pinky, the beloved hotel bellhop.

A bellhop, also bellboy ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a hotel porter, who helps patrons with their luggage while checking in or out.

Bellboy from a hotel in Kyoto, Japan

An early technique of players, circle strafing, saw a player continuously strafing while aiming and shooting at an opponent by walking in circle around the opponent with the opponent at the center of the circle.

As of 2014, the Warsaw Convention had been ratified by 152 states. The Protocol to the Convention had been ratified by 137 states.

Most sovereign states are states de jure and de facto (i.e.

In a legal context, de jure is also translated as "concerning law". A practice may exist de facto, where, for example, the people obey a contract as though there were a law enforcing it, yet there is no such law. A process known as "desuetude" may allow (de facto) practices to replace (de jure) laws that have fallen out of favor, locally.

In video games, strafing is the technique of moving the player's character from side to side, rather than forward and backward.

The seminal modern case under U.S. state law is a West Virginia opinion regarding desuetude, Committee on Legal Ethics v.

The question of the constitutionality of the formation of the new state was later brought before the Supreme Court of the United States in the following manner: Berkeley and Jefferson counties lying on the Potomac east of the mountains, in 1863, with the consent of the reorganized government of Virginia voted in favor of annexation to West Virginia.

Bituminous coal seam in southwestern West Virginia

Video gaming has traditionally been a social experience. Multiplayer video games are those that can be played either competitively, sometimes in Electronic Sports, or cooperatively by using either multiple input devices, or by hotseating.

During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Berkeley and Jefferson counties, both lying on the Potomac River east of the mountains, with the consent of the Reorganized Government of Virginia, supposedly voted in favor of annexation to West Virginia in 1863.

From the Fairfax Stone, the North Branch Potomac River flows 27 miles (43 km) to the man-made Jennings Randolph Lake, an impoundment designed for flood control and emergency water supply.

The modern esports boom has also seen a rise in video games companies embracing the esports potential of their products, In 2014, Nintendo hosted an invitational Super Smash Bros 4 competitive tournament in lieu of their traditional E3 press conference.

Service reservoirs store fully treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers, often as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is relatively flat.

A variety of materials can be used to construct a typical water tower; steel and reinforced or prestressed concrete are most often used (with wood, fiberglass, or brick also in use), incorporating an interior coating to protect the water from any effects from the lining material.

Rooftop water towers on apartment buildings on East 57th Street in New York City. The structures seen here illustrate three architectural approaches to incorporating these tanks in the design of a building. From left to right, a fully enclosed and ornately decorated brick structure, a simple unadorned roofless brick structure hiding most of the tank but revealing the top of the tank, and a simple utilitarian structure that makes no effort to hide the tanks or otherwise incorporate them into the design of the building.

Pultrusion is a manufacturing method used to make strong, lightweight composite materials. In pultrusion, material is pulled through forming machinery using either a hand-over-hand method or a continuous-roller method (as opposed to extrusion, where the material is pushed through dies).

Several large fiberglass tanks at an airport

Love hotels can usually be identified using symbols such as hearts and the offer of a room rate for a "rest" (休憩, kyūkei?) as well as for an overnight stay. The period of a "rest" varies, typically ranging from one to three hours.

Commonly extruded materials include metals, polymers, ceramics, concrete, play dough, and foodstuffs.

A parting line, sprue, gate marks, and ejector pin marks are usually present on the final part.:98 None of these features are typically desired, but are unavoidable due to the nature of the process.

Two-shot injection moulded keycaps from a computer keyboard

A parting line, or seam in moldmaking is the place where two or more parts of the mold meet. Parting lines occur due to minute inherent gaps between two mating faces of halves of the die.

The Baseball World Cup was an international tournament in which national baseball teams from around the world competed.

Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix.

Cricket is more similar to baseball than many other team sports in this regard: while the individual focus in cricket is mitigated by the importance of the batting partnership and the practicalities of tandem running, it is enhanced by the fact that a batsman may occupy the wicket for an hour or much more.

Some placenames in the United States use Centre in their names.

Large partnerships do more than simply add runs to the scoreboard, they may also serve to exhaust and demoralise the fielding team.

Harbhajan Singh and Sachin Tendulkar support each other mid-innings.

In 2001, Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger launched Wikipedia, a collaboratively edited, multilingual, open-source, free Internet encyclopedia supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation.

Naturalis Historiæ, 1669 edition, title page

For baseball the scoreboard will at the minimum show both team scores, as well as the current inning.

IPv6 is not directly interoperable by design with IPv4. In essence, it establishes a parallel version of the Internet not directly accessible with IPv4 software. This means software upgrades or translator facilities are necessary for networking devices that need to communicate on both networks. Essentially all modern computer operating systems support both versions of the Internet Protocol. Network infrastructure, however, is still lagging in this development. Aside from the complex array of physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts, e.g., peering agreements, and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network.

Play starts with a batter standing at home plate, holding a bat. The batter waits for the pitcher to throw a pitch (the ball) toward home plate, and attempts to hit the ball with the bat. The catcher catches pitches that the batter does not hit—as a result of either electing not to swing or failing to connect—and returns them to the pitcher. A batter who hits the ball into the field of play must drop the bat and begin running toward first base, at which point the player is referred to as a runner (or, until the play is over, a batter-runner). A batter-runner who reaches first base without being put out (see below) is said to be safe and is now on base.

In baseball, a baserunner is safe when he reaches a base without being put out by various ways.

Scheme of interconnection and peering of autonomous systems

If the designated hitter (DH) rule is in effect, each team has a tenth player whose sole responsibility is to bat (and run).

In telecommunications, data transfer rate is the average number of bits (bitrate), characters or symbols (baudrate), or blocks (packet rate) per unit time passing between equipment in a data transmission system.

Critics often argue that use of the designated hitter introduces an asymmetry to the game by separating players into classes, creating offensive and defensive specialization more akin to American football.

The three types of scrimmage kicks are place kicks, drop kicks, and punts. Only place kicks and drop kicks can score points. The place kick is the standard method used to score points, because the pointy shape of the football makes it difficult to reliably drop kick. Once the ball has been kicked from a scrimmage kick, it can be advanced by the kicking team only if it is caught or recovered behind the line of scrimmage. If it is touched or recovered by the kicking team beyond this line, it becomes dead at the spot where it was touched. The kicking team is prohibited from interfering with the receiver's opportunity to catch the ball, and the receiving team has the option of signaling for a fair catch.

A diagram of a typical pre-snap formation. The offense (red) is lined up in a variation of the I formation, while the defense (blue) is lined up in the 4-3 defense. Both formations are legal.

Some opponents of net neutrality argue that prioritization of bandwidth is necessary for future innovation on the Internet. Telecommunications providers such as telephone and cable companies, and some technology companies that supply networking gear, argue telecom providers should have the ability to provide preferential treatment in the form of tiered services, for example by giving online companies willing to pay the ability to transfer their data packets faster than other Internet traffic.

Various forms of football descended from certain English school football games of the 19th century have had a fair catch. It was abolished early in the development of soccer, then in the middle of the 20th century by Canadian football, and slightly later by rugby league.

Sprint is implementing tiered data plans for their mobile broadband products.

In rugby league points are scored by carrying or kicking the ball down the field, until it can be moved past the opponents' designated goal line and touched to the ground; this is called a try, and is the primary method of scoring. The opposing team attempts to stop the attacking side gaining points by preventing their progress up the field by tackling the player carrying the ball. In addition to tries, points can be scored by kicking goals.

A try is a way of scoring points in rugby union and rugby league football.

Shaun Ainscough dives for the line to score a try in the 2009 Challenge Cup for Wigan during their victory over Barrow Raiders

Sprint was the official wireless sponsor of the 2007 MTV Video Music Awards.

Kid Rock and Tommy Lee were involved in an altercation at the Video Music Awards during the come-back performance of Alicia Keys.

Protective equipment is optional and strictly regulated. The most common items are mouthguards, which are worn by almost all players, and are compulsory in some rugby-playing nations. Other protective items that are permitted include head gear; thin (not more than 10 mm thick), non-rigid shoulder pads and shin guards; which are worn underneath socks. Bandages or tape can be worn to support or protect injuries; some players wear tape around the head to protect the ears in scrums and rucks.

On February 28, 2006, Kid Rock released his first live album, Live Trucker, comprising songs from his homestead performances in Clarkston in 2000 and 2004 as well as Detroit's Cobo Hall on March 26, 2004.

The headgear is strictly defined by Regulation 12 of the IRB as being made of soft, thin materials.

The cover of the album is in the same style as the Bob Seger & The Silver Bullet Band album Live Bullet.

In 1984, Seger wrote and recorded the power rock ballad "Understanding" for the film soundtrack Teachers.

World Rugby is compliant with the WADA code.

The minutes of the first formal meeting of the IRFB, from a meeting attended by Lyle and McAlistair of Ireland, Carrick and Gardner of Scotland, Mullock and Lyne of Wales

In 2004, the World Anti-Doping Code was implemented by sports organizations prior to the Olympic Games in Athens, Greece.

The film opens with a typical Monday morning at John F. Kennedy High School; "typical" events including a fight between teachers, a student with a stab wound and talk of an upcoming lawsuit. We meet haggard Vice Principal Roger Rubell (Judd Hirsch) and clueless Principal Eugene Horn (William Schallert), as well as stuffy lawyer and JFK alumna Lisa Hammond (JoBeth Williams), who is in charge of taking depositions for the Calvin case, in which a recent graduate is suing the school for giving him a diploma despite his illiteracy.

Most of the Greek islands and many main cities of Greece are connected by air mainly from the two major Greek airlines, Olympic Air and Aegean Airlines.

Beginning in the fall 2014, he will appear in the ABC television series

In 1984, Gardner adapted his play for a feature film he also directed. The cast included Martin Balsam as Max, Pamela Reed as Nancy, and Judd Hirsch as Arthur, with Tucker reprising his stage role as Michael.

1968 Playbill

Physics covers a wide range of phenomena, from elementary particles (such as quarks, neutrinos, and electrons) to the largest superclusters of galaxies.

Superclusters form massive structures of galaxies, called "filaments", "supercluster complexes", "walls" or "sheets", that may span between several hundred million light-years to 10 billion light-years, covering more than 5% of the observable universe.

At the time of the merger announcement, Aegean was in the process of becoming a full Star Alliance member, while Olympic Air was forging ties with SkyTeam pre-merger.

A light-year (symbol: ly), sometimes written light year or lightyear, is a unit of length used informally to express astronomical distances. It is approximately 10 trillion kilometres (or about 6 trillion miles). As defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), a light-year is the distance that light travels in vacuum in one Julian year. Because it includes the word year, the term light-year is sometimes misinterpreted as a unit of time.

Star Alliance has two premium levels, Silver and Gold, based on a customer's tier status in a member carrier's frequent flyer program.

More generally, it is normally impossible for information or energy to travel faster than c. One argument for this follows from the counter-intuitive implication of special relativity known as the relativity of simultaneity.

In physics, the relativity of simultaneity is the concept that distant simultaneity – whether two spatially separated events occur at the same time – is not absolute, but depends on the observer's reference frame.

The degree to which such a description is subjective is rather subtle. See the Ozma Problem for an illustration of this.

On July 12, 2012, United announced an order for 100 Boeing 737 MAX 9s, a new, more fuel efficient version of the Boeing 737 family.

N778UA, the second Boeing 777-200 to enter commercial service, bearing the post-merger livery, with the Continental globe and United name

The book begins with the subject of mirrors, and from there passes through symmetry in poetry, shapes, art, music, galaxies, suns, planets and wildlife.

Western cultures have had a major influence on the development of music.

For the tenth year in a row, Fortune magazine recognized Southwest Airlines in its annual survey of corporate reputations.

Original desert gold livery, used until 2001

In late October 1929, the Wall Street Crash of 1929 occurred, marking the onset of the Great Depression.

The Medieval West was at its broadest the same as Christendom, including both the "Latin" or "Frankish" West, and the Orthodox Eastern part, where Greek remained the language of empire.

The Great Depression had devastating effects in countries rich and poor.

Third Worldism is a political movement that argues for the unity of third-world nations against first-world influence and the principle of non-interference in other countries' domestic affairs.

In the post-cold war era, it can however be seen that new emergent norms of humanitarian intervention are superseding the norm of non-intervention.

Rising Great Power tensions in the early 20th century and the interwar period led to a breakdown in the concerted will of the international community to enforce considerations of a humanitarian nature. Attempts were made under the auspices of the League of Nations to arbitrate and settle international disputes.

Following accusations of forced labour on the large American-owned Firestone rubber plantation and American accusations of slave trading, the Liberian government asked the League to launch an investigation. The resulting commission was jointly appointed by the League, the United States, and Liberia. In 1930, a League report confirmed the presence of slavery and forced labour.

Jan Smuts helped to draft the Covenant of the League of Nations.

Firestone was originally based in Akron, Ohio, also the hometown of its archrival, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, and another two mid-sized competitors, General Tire and Rubber and BF Goodrich.

General Tire's final move into entertainment was the acquisition of RKO Radio Pictures from Howard Hughes in 1955 for $25 million.

Wrede recognized the inherent inter-relationship of his approach with the hypothesis of Markan priority – namely that Mark was written first and influenced the other Gospels.

Maverick industrialist Howard Hughes took over RKO in 1948.

Orson Welles in the title role of Citizen Kane (1941), often cited as the greatest film of all time.[75]

The earliest relevant source is Papias (c.

The wealthy and aging Howard Hughes, accompanied by his entourage of personal aides, began moving from one hotel to another, always taking up residence in the top floor penthouse. During the last ten years of his life, from 1966 to 1976, Hughes lived in hotels in Beverly Hills, Boston, Las Vegas, Nassau, Freeport, Vancouver, London, Managua, Acapulco, and others.

The auditorium was rebuilt as well, substituting the ancient limestone seats with others in marble, and realizing a high podium on the orchestra in order to adapt the building to the organization of venationes and gladiator schools.

Freeport is a 230-square-mile (600 km2) free trade zone on Grand Bahama Island, established in 1955 by the government of The Bahamas. The city of Freeport emerged from a land grant comprising 50,000 acres (200 km2) of swamp and scrub to become a cosmopolitan centre. The Grand Bahama Port Authority (GBPA) operates the free trade zone, under special powers conferred by the government under the Hawksbill Creek Agreement, which was recently extended until August 3, 2054.

The cavea was further divided vertically into cunei. A cuneus (Latin for "wedge"; plural, cunei) was a wedge-shaped division separated by the scalae or stairways.

The Grand Bahama Port Authority ( GBPA or "Port Authority") is a privately held corporation that also acts as the municipal authority for Freeport, Grand Bahama Island, The Bahamas.

Tourism is the mainstay of the island's economy.

Many leisure-oriented tourists travel to seaside resorts at their nearest coast or further apart.

The development of the seaside resort abroad was stimulated by the well developed English love of the beach. The French Riviera alongside the Mediterranean had already become a popular destination for the British upper class by the end of the 18th century.

Classical Latin distinguished between long and short vowels.

The French Riviera is a major yachting and cruising area with several marinas along its coast.

Boulevard de la Croisette along the waterfront in Cannes.

Four-way distinctions have been claimed, but these are actually long-short distinctions on adjacent syllables.

Dinghy designs vary from small, stable, and slow craft for novice sailors to lightweight, high-speed designs that are very difficult for even experienced crews to sail safely and effectively. Australia's 18-foot skiff class are the fastest monohull dinghies, reaching speeds of up to 40 kilometres per hour (25 miles per hour) even in relatively light winds.

Today there are two modern hull designs racing. The "International 18" is based on a design by Iain Murray, while the B18 was designed by Julian Bethwaite.

Languages in which the position of stress in a word is less predictable are said to have variable stress. This applies to English and Russian, and to some extent to Italian and Spanish.

Murray started sailing in Flying Ant class dinghies at the age of nine.

The historical origin of vocabulary items affects the order of acquisition of various aspects of language development in English-speaking children.

The Flying Ant is a class of sailing dinghy. The boat has a plywood design originally designed by John Spencer in New Zealand during the 1950s.

Evolutionary biologists are skeptical of the claim that syntactic knowledge is transmitted in the human genome.

Spencer was born in Melbourne and moved to Eketahuna in 1933.

The town is located at the foot of the Tararua Ranges which lie to the west.

Many biologists have contributed to our current understanding of evolution. Although the term had been used sporadically starting at the turn of the century, evolutionary biology in a disciplinary sense gained currency during the period of "the evolutionary synthesis." Theodosius Dobzhansky and

He was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1964, and the Franklin Medal in 1973.

The Tararua Ranges are significant in the history of tramping in New Zealand, due to its accessibility for people in Wellington and nearby towns. In April 1933, it was the focus of what later came to be known as The Sutch Search when Mr Eric Hill, Miss Morva Williams, Mr Bert O’Keefe and Dr.

The Franklin Medal was a scholarly and engineering award presented by the Franklin Institute, of Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The Benjamin Franklin National Memorial features a 20-foot (6.1 m) high marble statue, sculpted by James Earle Fraser.

The crossing of glaciers is potentially hazardous because of the potential for crevasses.

In Europe, the EU requires its members to split the railway companies into a number of different companies. Usually public owned companies own the track and other public companies (sometimes owned by regional governments) own the train cars.

Outwash plains and valley trains are usually accompanied by basins known as "kettles".

Kettles are fluvioglacial landforms occurring as the result of blocks of ice calving from the front of a receding glacier and becoming partially to wholly buried by glacial outwash.

Modern cars usually have either air-conditioning or windows that can be opened (sometimes, for safety, not so far that one can hang out), or sometimes both.

American wooden clerestory cars on display at the Mid-Continent Railway Museum in North Freedom, USA.

As glaciers flow over bedrock, they soften and lift blocks of rock into the ice. This process, called plucking, is caused by subglacial water that penetrates fractures in the bedrock and subsequently freezes and expands. This expansion causes the ice to act as a lever that loosens the rock by lifting it. Thus, sediments of all sizes become part of the glacier's load. If a retreating glacier gains enough debris, it may become a rock glacier, like the Timpanogos Glacier in Utah.

Glacial moraines above Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada

In 1906,

Three-quarters scale model of Gorrie's ice machine John Gorrie State Museum, Florida

Timpanogos Glacier is a buried glacier that is located in the Wasatch Range, Wasatch-Cache National Forest, and is the last glacier in the

The ability for a molecule of a liquid to evaporate is based largely on the amount of kinetic energy an individual particle may possess.

Outdoor enthusiasts can also find world class rock climbing and mountaineering on the towering limestone, granite and quartzite peaks and in many of the surrounding canyons.

The terms kinetic energy and work in their present scientific meanings date back to the mid-19th century. Early understandings of these ideas can be attributed to Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis, who in 1829 published the paper titled Du Calcul de l'Effet des Machines outlining the mathematics of kinetic energy.

The direction of the dip of rock strata sometimes determines the degree of danger on a particular face; the character of the rock must also be considered. Where stones fall frequently debris will be found below, whilst on snow slopes falling stones cut furrows visible from a great distance. In planning an ascent of a new peak or an unfamiliar route, mountaineers must look for such traces. When falling stones get mixed in considerable quantity with slushy snow or water a mud avalanche is formed (common in the Himalayas).

Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis or Gustave Coriolis (French: ; 21 May 1792 – 19 September 1843) was a French mathematician, mechanical engineer and scientist.

The Himalayas, or Himalaya, (/ˌhɪməˈleɪ.ə/ or /hɪˈmɑːləjə/; Sanskrit: हिमालय, hima (snow) + ālaya (dwelling), Sanskrit word meaning "abode of the snow") is a mountain range in South Asia which separates the Indo-Gangetic Plain from the Tibetan Plateau.

Mathematics is often grouped with the sciences.

The other great sub-branch of Indo-Iranian, the Iranian languages, also have significant minority representation in South Asia, with Pashto and Balochi being widely spoken along the northwestern fringes of the region, in modern-day Pakistan.

Axioms in traditional thought were "self-evident truths", but that conception is problematic.

It was the early hope of modern logicians that various branches of mathematics, perhaps all of mathematics, could be derived from a consistent collection of basic axioms. An early success of the formalist program was Hilbert's formalization of Euclidean geometry, and the related demonstration of the consistency of those axioms.

Many alternative axioms can be formulated that have the same logical consequences as the parallel postulate.

The structure of the Pakistani economy has changed from a mainly agricultural to a strong service base.

Logical consequence is taken to be both necessary and formal with examples explicated using models and proofs. A sentence is said to be a logical consequence of a set of sentences, for a given language, if and only if, using logic alone (i.e.

Fishery and fishing industry plays an important role in the national economy of Pakistan.

A formal proof or derivation is a finite sequence of well-formed formulas (which may be interpreted as propositions) each of which is an axiom or follows from the preceding formulas in the sequence by a rule of inference.

There are species fisheries worldwide for finfish, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms, and by extension, aquatic plants such as kelp.

Kelp grows in underwater "forests" (kelp forests) in shallow oceans, and is thought to have appeared in the Miocene, 23 to 5 million years ago. The organisms require nutrient-rich water with temperatures between 6 and 14 °C (43 and 57 °F).

Some logicians favor a multiple-conclusion consequence relation over the more traditional single-conclusion relation on the grounds that the latter is asymmetric (in the informal, non-mathematical sense) and favors truth over falsity (or assertion over denial).

Cetaceans attained their greatest diversity during the Miocene, with over 20 recognized genera in comparison to only six living genera. This diversification correlates with emergence of gigantic macro-predators such as megatoothed sharks and raptorial sperm whales. Prominent examples are C.

Enumeration example: In English, there are grammatical rules for specifying coordinate items in an enumeration or series.

While sperm whales are well adapted to diving, repeated dives to great depths have long term effects. Bones show the same pitting that signals decompression sickness in humans.

One impact of the growth of English is the reduction of native linguistic diversity in many parts of the world.

The first sentence of Beowulf (above) reads in Old English, "Hƿæt ƿē Gārdena ingēar dagum þēod cyninga þrym ge frunon," which means, "Listen! We of the Spear-Danes from days of yore have heard of the glory of the folk-kings."

The decompression schedule may be derived from decompression tables, decompression software, or from dive computers, and these are commonly based upon a mathematical model of the body's uptake and release of inert gas as pressure changes.

Acquisition of second and additional languages can come at any age, through exposure in daily life or courses. Children learning a second language are more likely to achieve native-like fluency than adults, but in general, it is very rare for someone speaking a second language to pass completely for a native speaker. An important difference between first language acquisition and additional language acquisition is that the process of additional language acquisition is influenced by languages that the learner already knows.

Although in-water recompression is regarded as risky, and to be avoided, there is increasing evidence that technical divers who surface and demonstrate mild DCS symptoms may often get back into the water and breathe pure oxygen at a depth 20 feet/6 meters for a period to seek to alleviate the symptoms. This trend is noted in paragraph 3.6.5 of DAN's 2008 accident report. The report also notes that whilst the reported incidents showed very little success, "e must recognize that these calls were mostly because the attempted IWR failed.

Twenty-four uniliteral signs make up the so-called hieroglyphic alphabet. Egyptian hieroglyphic writing does not normally indicate vowels, unlike cuneiform, and for that reason has been labelled by some an abjad alphabet, i.e., an alphabet without vowels.

Hieroglyphs typical of the Graeco-Roman period

In 1977, Undersea Medical Society (later the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society) introduced the concept of a national organization (to replace LEO-FAST at Brooks Air Force Base, directed by Colonel Jefferson Davis, M.D.) where a diving medicine specialist could be contacted by telephone 24 hours a day.

Therefore, a text containing DINGIR and MU in succession could be construed to represent the words "ana", "ila", god + "a" (the accusative ending), god + water, or a divine name "A" or Water.

Also during this period, the School of Aviation Medicine was moved from Mitchel Field, New York, to Brooks.

According to traditional Finnish grammars, the accusative is the case of a total object, while the case of a partial object is the partitive.

The partitive is used only in the singular and can always be replaced by the genitive.

In October 1923, Mitchel Field was the scene of the first airplane jumping contest in the nation. During the same year, two world's airplane speed records were established there. In 1924, the air mail service had its inception in experimental flights begun at the airfield.

In linguistics, the partitive is a word, phrase, or case that indicates partialness.

On this sign in Russian memorializing an anniversary of the city of Balakhna, the word Balakhna on the right is in the nominative case, while the word Balakhne is in the dative case in Balakhne 500 Let ('Balakhna is 500 years old') on the front of the sign. Meanwhile let is in the genitive (plural) case.

The first official American airmail delivery was made on September 23, 1911 by pilot Earle Ovington under the authority of the United States Post Office Department. The first official air mail in Australia was carried by French pilot Maurice Guillaux.

During the Civil War (1861–65), postal services in the Confederacy were provided by the CSA Post Office Department, headed by Postmaster General John Henninger Reagan.

Flag of Truce mail exchanges resumed a month later and were used until the end of the war. Prisoner mail that was carried by Flag-of-Truce had to be put in an unsealed envelope with address and postage for delivery on the other side, then placed in an outer cover for delivery to the exchange point where the outer envelope would be destroyed and the inner envelope containing the prisoner's letter was inspected. The letter would then be placed in and sealed in the stamped addressed envelope and hand-stamped indicating that the item had been inspected. Often correspondents did not observe the two-envelope regulation, so there are examples of covers where instead of an inner and outer envelope arrangement both US and Confederate postage was applied to the prisoner's letter and where both US and Confederate markings were applied. These covers are often referred to as dual-use postage covers Mail exchange between the divided states was only allowed to cross the lines at specified exchange points. Mail which was going from the North destined to points in the South passed primarily at City Point, Virginia, while most of the mail going from the South to the North passed through at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, and usually bear an Old Point Comfort postmark.

It was near Old Point Comfort that the USS Missouri (BB-63), then the only U.S.

Old Point Comfort, ca.1900

The state-funded Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies serves as a centre for preserving the medieval Icelandic manuscripts and studying the language and its literature.

Missouri departed Istanbul on 9 April and entered Phaleron Bay, Piraeus, Greece, the following day for an overwhelming welcome by Greek government officials and anti-communist citizens.

Missouri moves through the Panama Canal en route to the United States in October 1945.

Landnámabók (Icelandic pronunciation: , “Book of Settlements”), often shortened to Landnáma, is a medieval Icelandic written work which describes in considerable detail the settlement (landnám) of Iceland by the Norse in the 9th and 10th centuries AD.

A page from a vellum manuscript of Landnáma in the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies in Reykjavík, Iceland

The Landnámabók claims that the first Norseman to rest his feet on Icelandic soil was a viking by the name of Naddoddr.

A page from a skin manuscript of Landnámabók, a primary source on the settlement of Iceland, preserved in the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies in Reykjavík

Phalerum was the major port of Athens before Themistocles had the three rocky natural harbours by the promontory of Piraeus developed as alternative, starting from 491 BC.

Naddod (Old Norse: Naddoðr or Naddaðr, literally "studded") was a Faroese Viking who is credited with the discovery of Iceland.

The Faroese or Faroe Islanders (Føroyingar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Faroe Islands. The Faroese are of mixed Norse and Gaelic origins. About 21,000 Faroese live in neighbouring countries, particularly in Denmark, Iceland and Norway.

Themistocles was born in Athens around 524 BC, the son of Neocles, who was, in the words of Plutarch "no very conspicuous man". His mother is more obscure; according to Plutarch, she was either a Thracian woman called Abrotonon, or Euterpe, a Carian from Halicarnassus. Like many contemporaries, little is known of his early years.

By the mid 5th century, as the Roman Empire began to crumble, Thracia fell from the authority of Rome and into the hands of Germanic tribal rulers. With the fall of Rome, Thracia turned into a battleground territory for the better part of the next 1,000 years. The surviving eastern portion of the Roman Empire in the Balkans, later known as the Byzantine Empire, retained control over Thrace until the 8th century when the northern half of the entire region was incorporated into the First Bulgarian Empire and the remainder was reorganized in the Thracian theme.

Although the Bulgarian Knyaz succeeded in securing an autonomous Church, its higher clergy and theological books were still Greek, which impeded the efforts to convert the populace to the new religion. Between 860 and 863 the Byzantine monks of Greek origin Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius created the Glagolitic alphabet, the first Slavic alphabet by order of the Byzantine Emperor, who aimed to convert Great Moravia to Orthodox Christianity.

Inspired by romantic and nationalist ideas from mainland Europe, a national consciousness arose.

The pacifist critique of nationalism also concentrates on the violence of nationalist movements, the associated militarism, and on conflicts between nations inspired by jingoism or chauvinism.

The term originated in Britain, expressing a pugnacious attitude toward Russia in the 1870s, and appeared in the American press by 1893.

The American War-Dog, a 1916 political cartoon by Oscar Cesare, with the dog named 'Jingo'

The Vistulans (Polish: Wiślanie) were an early medieval West Slavic tribe inhabiting western part of modern Lesser Poland. In the 9th century, they created a tribal state, with probable major centers in Kraków, Wiślica, Sandomierz, and Stradów.

Central Europe in 870. Eastern Francia in blue, Bulgaria in orange, Great Moravia under Rastislav in green. The green line depicts the borders of Great Moravia after the territorial expansion under Svatopluk I (894). Note that some of the borders of Great Moravia are under debate

In the Middle Ages, a large Slavic gord was located here.

Model of Bródno gord in National Museum of Archaeology in Warsaw

Following a period of widespread economic slowdown and industrial strife in the 1970s, the Conservative Government of the 1980s initiated a radical policy of monetarism, deregulation, particularly of the financial sector (for example, Big Bang in 1986) and labour markets, the sale of state-owned companies (privatisation), and the withdrawal of subsidies to others. This resulted in high unemployment and social unrest, but ultimately also economic growth, particularly in the services sector.

Putgarten is a municipality in the Vorpommern-Rügen district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Vorpommern-Rügen is a district in the north of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

In the UK, Big Bang became one of the cornerstones of the Thatcher government's reform programme.

Bishopsgate in the City

In North Rhine-Westphalia, there are some cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants which are not urban districts, for example Recklinghausen, Siegen, Paderborn, Bergisch Gladbach, Neuss and Moers.

In 1795 it was annexed by France. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815 it was returned to Prussia and in 1871 it became part of the German Empire.

Thatcher was one of the first Western leaders to respond warmly to reformist Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.

During the 17th century Sweden emerged as a European great power.

Britain was challenged again by France under Napoleon, in a struggle that, unlike previous wars, represented a contest of ideologies between the two nations. It was not only Britain's position on the world stage that was threatened: Napoleon threatened to invade Britain itself, just as his armies had overrun many countries of continental Europe.

Especially in Germanic studies, continental refers to the European continent excluding the Scandinavian peninsula, Britain, Ireland, and Iceland.

The beginnings of research into the Germanic languages began in the 16th century, with the discovery of literary texts in the earlier phases of the languages. Early modern publications dealing with Old Norse culture appeared in the 16th century, e.g.

The earliest inscriptions in Old Norse are runic, from the 8th century.

At the end of a November 1996 interview on C-SPAN's Booknotes, Gorbachev described his plans for future books.

In 1992, Congress passed must-carry regulations, which required cable carriers to allocate spectrum to local broadcasters.

In cable television, governments apply a must-carry regulation stating that locally licensed television stations must be carried on a cable provider's system.

The head of a lance, found in Dahmsdorf-Müncheberg, in Brandenburg between Berlin and the Oder River, inscribed with ranja (ᚱᚨᚾᛃᚨ) (Ulfilan rannja , "router").

Television stations usually require a broadcast license from a government agency which sets the requirements and limitations on the station.

The Congress and President of the United States delegate specific authority to government agencies to regulate the complex facets of the modern American federal state.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.

A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.

A federation often emerges from an initial agreement between a number of separate states. The purpose can be the will to solve mutual problems and to provide for mutual defense, or to create a nation state for an ethnicity spread over several states.

Works created before the existence of copyright and patent laws also form part of the public domain. For example, the Bible and the inventions of Archimedes are in the public domain, but copyright may exist in translations or new formulations of these works.

Newton's own copy of his Principia, with hand-written corrections for the second edition

The nation states typically had a more centralised and uniform public administration than its imperial predecessors: they were smaller, and the population less diverse.

The Bible translated into German by Martin Luther

Public administration is both an academic discipline and a field of practice; the latter is depicted in this picture of US federal public servants at a meeting.

In 1848, Stein published a book entitled Socialist and Communist Movements since the Third French Revolution (1848) in which he introduced the term "social movement" into scholarly discussions - depicting actually in this way political movements fighting for the social rights understood as the welfare rights.

The prayer appears in ancient Syriac, Old Slavonic, Ethiopic, and Armenian translations. In the Ethiopian Bible, the prayer is found in 2 Chronicles.

In the social sciences, a political movement is a social group which operate together to obtain a political goal, on a local, regional, national, or international scope.

In the initial stages of expansion, the groups usually do not accept every applicant. One of the ways to build a reasonably closed group is to accept new members after one or more existing members propose and recommend them.

Individuals in groups are connected to each other by social relationships

The translators who created the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible (the Septuagint) called this book "Things Left Out", indicating that they thought of it as a supplement to another work, probably Genesis-Kings, but the idea seems inappropriate, since much of Genesis-Kings has been copied almost without change.

The most comprehensive English edition is quite possibly

As social beings, individuals learn when and where it is appropriate to say certain things, to use certain words, to discuss certain topics or wear certain clothes, and when it is not. Thus, knowledge about cultural norms is important for impressions, which is an individual's regulation of their nonverbal behavior.

Exodus begins the story of God's revelation to his people Israel through Moses, who leads them out of Egypt (Exodus 1–18) to Mount Sinai.

In the United States, Lindlof and Taylor write, "Cultural studies grounded in a pragmatic, liberal-pluralist tradition". The American version of cultural studies initially concerned itself more with understanding the subjective and appropriative side of audience reactions to, and uses of, mass culture; for example, American cultural-studies advocates wrote about the liberatory aspects of fandom.

Mount Sinai (Arabic: طُورِ سَيْنَاء, translit.: Ṭūr Sīnāʼ ; Egyptian Arabic: جَبَل مُوسَى, translit.: Jabal Mūsā or Gabal Mūsā; literally "Moses' Mountain" or "Mount Moses"; Hebrew: הר סיני‎و translit. Har Sinai), also known as Mount Horeb, is a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt that is a possible location of the biblical Mount Sinai.

A transcription may reflect the language as spoken, typically rendering names, for example, by the people of Baghdad (Baghdad Arabic), or the official standard (Literary Arabic) as spoken by a preacher in the mosque or a TV newsreader.

Hannah Arendt's 1961 essay "The Crisis in Culture" suggested that a "market-driven media would lead to the displacement of culture by the dictates of entertainment." Susan Sontag argues that in our culture, the most "...intelligible, persuasive values are drawn from the entertainment industries", which has spelt the "undermining of standards of seriousness." As a result, "tepid, the glib, and the senselessly cruel" topics are becoming the norm. Some critics argue that popular culture is “dumbing down”: "newspapers that once ran foreign news now feature celebrity gossip, pictures of scantily dressed young ladies...

Baghdad Arabic or Baghdadi Arabic is the Arabic dialect spoken in Baghdad, the capital of Iraq.

Sontag was awarded an American Association of University Women's fellowship for the 1957–1958 academic year to St Anne's College, Oxford, where she traveled without her husband and son. There, she had classes with Iris Murdoch, Stuart Hampshire,

Her last novel, Jackson's Dilemma, was published in 1995.

In her final years, Murdoch suffered from the early stages of Alzheimer's disease, one of the symptoms of which is a reduced vocabulary and decreased word fluency.

The Arabic alphabet derives from the Aramaic through Nabatean, to which it bears a loose resemblance like that of Coptic or Cyrillic scripts to Greek script.

A Cursive Hebrew variant developed from the early centuries AD, but it remained restricted to the status of a variant used alongside the non-cursive.

Preliminary research on the effects of meditation on retrieving memory and cognitive functions have been encouraging. Limitations of this research can be addressed in future studies with more detailed analyses.

Charlton Heston and Ronald Reagan at a meeting in the White House. Both of them would later be diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease.

The brief inscriptions daubed in red ink upon the walls of the catacombs of Venosa are probably the oldest examples of cursive script.

Horace was born here in 65 BC.

Most European nations had their own 'Horaces': thus for example Friedrich von Hagedorn was called The German Horace and Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski The Polish Horace (the latter was much imitated by English poets such as Henry Vaughan and Abraham Cowley).

Based on the belief that particular types of artifacts (generally elements of personal adornment found in a funerary context) are thought to indicate the race and/or ethnicity of the person buried, the "Culture-History" school of archaeology assumed that archaeological cultures represent the Urheimat (homeland) of tribal polities named in historical sources. As a consequence, the shifting extensions of material cultures were interpreted as the expansion of peoples. Influenced by constructionism, process-driven archaeologists rejected the Culture-Historical doctrine; they marginalized the discussion of ethnicity altogether, and focused on the intragroup dynamics which generated such material remains.

Sarbiewski was a Jesuit priest at Vilnius University and court preacher to Polish King Władysław IV Vasa.

The most likely homeland of the Hmong–Mien languages (aka Miao–Yao languages) is in Southern China between the Yangtze and Mekong rivers, but speakers of these languages may have migrated from Central China either as part of the Han Chinese expansion or as a result of exile from an original homeland by Han Chinese. Migration of people speaking these languages from South China to Southeast Asia took place ca.

In 2002, Boston College president Father

In the broadest sense, Southern China can denote the entire portion of the country south of the line demarcated by the Qin Mountains and Huai River.

In June 2004, Boston College acquired 43 acres (170,000 m2) of land from the Archdiocese of Boston. The new grounds, adjacent to the main campus (on the opposite side of Commonwealth Avenue), include the historic mansion that served as the Cardinal's residence until 2002.

The Northern side of the range is prone to hot weather, however the physical barrier of the mountains mean that the land to the North has a semi-arid climate, with the lack of rich, fertile landscape that can not support a wealth of wildlife. The mountains also acted as a natural defense against nomadic invasions from the North, as only four passes cross the mountains.

Mountain passes make use of a gap, saddle or col (also sometimes a notch, the low point in a ridge).

The distinction between a saddle and a col is not always clear.

The rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops who are not ordinaries of an archdiocese. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head but because it has been granted to them personally ("ad personam"). Such a grant can be given when someone who already holds the rank of archbishop is transferred to a see that, though its present-day importance may be greater than the person's former see, is not archiepiscopal. The bishop transferred is then known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009. The title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is merely that of Bishop of the see, unless he also is granted the personal title of Archbishop.

Particularly rugged and forbidding cols in the terrain are usually referred to as notches. They are generally unsuitable as mountain passes, but are occasionally crossed by mule tracks or climbers' routes.

Gianfranco Agostino Gardin, O.F.M.

Amish farmers, who reject tractors and most other modern technology for religious reasons, commonly use teams of six or eight mules to pull plows, disks, and other farm equipment, though they use horses for pulling buggies on the road.

Though keeping Francis' remains in the

Two key concepts for understanding Amish practices are their rejection of Hochmut (pride, arrogance, haughtiness) and the high value they place on Demut (humility) and Gelassenheit (calmness, composure, placidity), often translated as "submission" or "letting-be".

Amish family shopping near Niagara Falls, Ontario

The purpose of the Ordnung is to guide Amish behavior into being more Christ-like, thus defining who they are. It intends that they be separate and different from the world. The world often exhibits the human tendency of self-exaltation, and the Ordnung provides a way for the Amish to refrain from such behavior. Anything viewed as disruptive to their society; such as personal power, wealth, and status, are funneled through the Ordnung into the social order of love and brotherhood. Disobedience to these lifestyle regulations is punished by discipline initiated by the church leaders. One of the more severe actions that the Amish bishop can mete out is Shunning (Meidung).

The basilica, which was begun in 1228, is built into the side of a hill and comprises two churches known as the Upper Church and the Lower Church, and a crypt where the remains of the saint are interred.

Cherem is the highest ecclesiastical censure in the Jewish community.

First known in the early Christian period, in particular North Africa at Chlef and Djemila in Algeria, and Byzantium at Saint John Studio in Constantinople.

Documents of the French army and other historians speak of "most powerful and wealthy tribes' in the Chellif Valley in 1830,

Rugby league in France is a sport that is most popular in the south, in cities such as Perpignan and Toulouse.

Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, and halakhic conversions.

In Perpignan many street name signs are in both French and Catalan.

Perpignan street name sign in French and Catalan.

Jewish identity can be cultural, religious, and/or through ancestry.

The inclusion of three CEDA ministers in the government that took office on October 1, 1934 led to a general strike and a rebellion by socialists and anarchists in Asturias on October 6.

In the United Kingdom, sociologists and other scholars influenced by Marxism, such as Stuart Hall (1932-2014) and Raymond Williams (1921-1988), developed cultural studies.

His book on Modern Tragedy may be read as a response to The Death of Tragedy by the conservative literary critic George Steiner.

It should be noted that after Italy (49) and China (45), Spain is the third country in the world with the most World Heritage Sites.

Hypostyle hall in the Great Mosque of Córdoba.

George Steiner is regarded as a polymath and often credited with recasting the role of the critic by exploring art and thought unbounded by national frontiers or academic disciplines.

Many dictionaries of word origins list these words as synonyms or as words with very similar meanings.

Webster completed his dictionary during his year abroad in 1825 in Paris, France, and at the University of Cambridge.

Education in Italy is free and mandatory from ages six to sixteen, and consists of five stages: kindergarten (scuola dell'infanzia), primary school (scuola primaria), lower secondary school (scuola secondaria di primo grado), upper secondary school (scuola secondaria di secondo grado) and university (università). The Superior Graduate Schools are independent institutions similar to French Grandes écoles which offer advanced training and research through university-type courses or are dedicated to teaching at graduate or post-doctoral level.

In Algeria, a middle school includes grades 6 through 10, consisting of students from ages 10 or 11 to 15.

The Wren Library is the library of Trinity College in Cambridge.

Thanks to strong hydrocarbon revenues, Algeria has a cushion of $173 billion in foreign currency reserves and a large hydrocarbon stabilization fund.

The last four Masters have all been Fellows of the college. The last master was Martin Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow (until end of June 2012).

Lord Rees is a well-respected author of books on astronomy and science intended for the lay public and gives many public lectures and broadcasts.

The traditional use of reserves is as savings for potential times of crises, especially balance of payments crises.

Reserves of SDRs, forex and gold in 2006

Empiricism has stood in contrast to rationalism, the position originally associated with Descartes, which holds that knowledge is created by the human intellect, not by observation.:p20 Critical rationalism is a contrasting 20th-century approach to science, first defined by Austrian-British philosopher Karl Popper.

The Meissner effect causes a magnet to levitate above a superconductor

Within personal finance, money used to purchase shares, put in a collective investment scheme or used to buy any asset where there is an element of capital risk is deemed an investment.

The fund manager managing the investment decisions on behalf of the investors will of course expect remuneration.

In January 2010, a previously unknown letter from Descartes, dated 27 May 1641, was found by the Dutch philosopher Erik-Jan Bos when browsing through Google.

According to a Boston Consulting Group study, the assets managed professionally for fees reached an all-time high of US$62.4 trillion in 2012, after remaining flat-lined since 2007. Furthermore, these industry assets under management were expected to reach US$70.2 trillion at the end of 2013 as per a Cerulli Associates estimate.

BCG's major competitors include McKinsey and Bain & Company.

Google Instant, a feature that displays suggested results while the user types, was introduced in the United States on September 8, 2010.

McKinsey worked at RAND until he was fired in 1951. The FBI considered him a security risk because he was a homosexual, in spite of the fact that he was an open homosexual who had been in a committed relationship for years.

Incremental search on a non-local server, as in Web search, uses more network bandwidth and server processing than non-incremental search, due to the handling of XMLHttpRequests (or similar) which are typically fired from each onkeyup event.

This event handling model was introduced by Netscape Navigator, and remains the most cross-browser model as of 2005.

SunSpider is a JavaScript benchmark utility for measuring the performance of JavaScript engines in more than a dozen tests, each concentrating on different part of JavaScript language.

Performance test for HTML5 3D applications.

The term sangoma, as employed in Zulu and congeneric languages, is effectively equivalent to shaman.

The form "website" has become the most common spelling, but "Web site" (capitalised) and "web site" are also widely used, though declining. Some academia, some large book publishers, and some dictionaries still use "Web site", reflecting the origin of the term in the proper name World Wide Web.

Directory publishing is a specialized genre within the publishing industry. These publishers produce mailing lists, telephone books, and other types of directories. With the advent of the Internet, many of these directories are now online.

While for many they provide the healing needed, there are some causes for concern. Charlatans who have not undergone thwasa charge exorbitant prices for fraudulent service, and not all countries in southern Africa have effective regulatory bodies to prevent this practice.

A charlatan (also called swindler or mountebank) is a person practising quackery or some similar confidence trick in order to obtain money, fame or other advantages via some form of pretense or deception.

For those in the practice of any medicine, to allege quackery is to level a serious objection to a particular form of practice. Most developed countries have a governmental agency, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US, whose purpose is to monitor and regulate the safety of medications as well as the claims made by the manufacturers of new and existing products, including drugs and nutritional supplements or vitamins.

Biotechnology drugs do not have the simple, readily verifiable chemical structures of conventional drugs, and are produced through complex, often proprietary techniques, such as transgenic mammalian cell cultures. Because of these complexities, the 1984 Hatch-Waxman Act did not include biologics in the Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) process, in essence precluding the possibility of generic drug competition for biotechnology drugs.

This article incorporates

The statistical power estimates the ability of a trial to detect a difference of a particular size (or larger) between the treatment and control groups. For example, a trial of a lipid-lowering drug versus placebo with 100 patients in each group might have a power of 0.90 to detect a difference between placebo and trial groups receiving dosage of 10 mg/dL or more, but only 0.70 to detect a difference of 5 mg/dL.

Newspaper advertisements seeking patients and healthy volunteers to participate in clinical trials

A telephone directory, also known as a telephone book, telephone address book, phone book, or the white/yellow pages, is a listing of telephone subscribers in a geographical area or subscribers to services provided by the organization that publishes the directory.

A common model on web sites, colloquially becoming known as the freemium model, is to provide content for free, but restrict access to premium features (for example, archives) to paying subscribers.

Eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized into membrane-bound organelles that carry out different biological functions.

However, more recent research has revealed that at least some prokaryotes have microcompartments such as carboxysomes.

(A) Electron micrograph of Halothiobacillus neapolitanus cells, arrows highlight carboxysomes. (B) Image of intact carboxysomes isolated from H. neapolitanus. Scale bars are 100 nm.[31]

Shareware is similar to freeware.

A number of viral capsids are also constructed from hexameric and pentameric proteins, but whether any evolutionary relationship exists between the carboxysome and viral capsids is unknown.

Stylized view of the carboxysome and related bacterial structures such as the propanediol utilization (Pdu) and ethanolamine utilization (Eut) microcompartments. Distinct hexameric BMC shell proteins carrying out different functions in the shell are shown in different shades of blue. Pentameric vertex proteins are shown in magenta. Encapsulated enzymes are shown in green, organized in layers. [Image: T. Yeates]

Another type of shareware software distribution very popular in the mobile domain are app store markets (e.g., see List of mobile software distribution platforms).

Specialist networks known as content delivery networks help distribute content over the Internet by ensuring both high availability and high performance.

Web caches store popular content on servers that have the greatest demand for the content requested.

(Left) Single server distribution (Right) CDN scheme of distribution

A web cache is a mechanism for the temporary storage (caching) of web documents, such as HTML pages and images, to reduce bandwidth usage, server load, and perceived lag.

Typically, the pixels are stored in computer memory as a raster image or raster map, a two-dimensional array of small integers.

The printing and prepress industries know raster graphics as contones (from "continuous tones").

In more recent years, prepress software has been developed which is designed to find as many efficiencies in prepress workflow as possible. These tools are accessed online, and allow different workers to work on one project at the same time, often from different locations. Key functionality automates common steps to reduce errors, reinforce quality standards and speed up production. Examples include automatically re-folioing pages, digital dummies for soft proofs, live linking with Adobe InDesign and pre-flight checking. These tools revolve around a Flatplan and are used in all sorts of prepress including book, magazine and catalog production.

For example, in the ABO blood group system, chemical modifications to a glycoprotein (the H antigen) on the surfaces of blood cells are controlled by three alleles, two of which are co-dominant to each other (IA, IB) and dominant over the recessive i at the ABO locus.

Nowadays, paper flatplans are being replaced by digital flatplans. These systems link the data in a flatplan with other systems. Many synchronise with Adobe InDesign updating with the most recent version of the artwork for each page as the designer is working on it.

The A and B alleles of the ABO gene express enzymes with glycosyltransferase activities that differ, adding either N-acetyl galactosamine or galactose to the H antigen, converting it into the A or B antigen respectively.

InDesign is the successor to Adobe PageMaker, which was acquired with the purchase of Aldus in late 1994.

Cyclic forms of galactose

The Macintosh version runs only in Mac OS 9 or earlier; there is no native support for Mac OS X, and it does not run at all on Intel-based Macs.

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the U.S.

Design of a race-way open pond commonly used for algal culture

The goals of the photovoltaics (PV) research done at NREL are to decrease the "nation's reliance on fossil-fuel generated electricity by lowering the cost of delivered electricity and improving the efficiency of PV modules and systems." Photovoltaic research at NREL is performed under the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV).

PowerPC versions of Mac OS X prior to Leopard retain compatibility with older Mac OS applications by providing an emulation environment called Classic, which allows users to run Mac OS 9 as a process within Mac OS X, so that most older applications run as they would under the older operating system.

In the United States, the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) will review designs and issue permits, before construction can lawfully begin.

Mac OS 9 is the final major release of Apple's Classic Mac OS operating system.

Most file systems used with DOS, Unix, or other operating systems treat a file as simply a sequence of bytes, requiring an application to know which bytes represent what type of information. By contrast, MFS and HFS give files two different "forks". The data fork contains the same sort of information as other file systems, such as the text of a document or the bitmaps of an image file. The resource fork contains other structured data such as menu definitions, graphics, sounds, or code segments.

In the structure of the resource fork, there is a piece of data called a "resource map" which stores the positions of resource data items. This can be used to allow random access to resource data based on the defined IDs and names.

Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764

A typical illustration of this distinction is to compare an ancient scroll (sequential; all material prior to the data needed must be unrolled) and the book (direct: can be immediately flipped open to any arbitrary page).

The bookmaking process was long and laborious. The parchment had to be prepared, then the unbound pages were planned and ruled with a blunt tool or lead, after which the text was written by the scribe, who usually left blank areas for illustration and rubrication.

"Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Son Masters", the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque nationale de France.

In the early 1990s, USAir expanded its service to Europe with flights to London, Paris and Frankfurt from its four primary hubs.

Quite commonly the manuscript's initial scribe would provide notes to the rubricator in the form of annotations made in the margins of the text.

A less expensive binding method is that used for paperback books (sometimes called softback or softcover).

At the juncture of the northern Main riverbank and the Wallanlagen is a famous small park called Nizza. The name of the park recalls the City of Nice in southern France because it is one of the warmest areas in Frankfurt with a nearly mediterranean climate.

The early 19th century saw numerous improvements in the printing, publishing and book-distribution processes, with the introduction of steam-powered printing presses, pulp mills, automatic type setting, and a network of railways. These innovations enabled the likes of Simms and McIntyre of Belfast, Routledge & Sons (founded in 1836) and Ward & Lock (founded in 1854) to mass-produce cheap uniform yellowback or paperback editions of existing works, and distribute and sell them across the UK and Ireland, principally via the ubiquitous W H Smith & Sons newsagent found at most urban British railway stations.

The treaty of Utrecht in 1713 once more gave the city back to the Duke of Savoy who was on that same occasion recognised as King of Sicily.

A yellow-back (or yellowback) is a cheap novel which was published in Britain in the second half of the 19th century.

In addition, Spain ceded Gibraltar and Minorca to Great Britain and agreed to give to the British the Asiento, a valuable monopoly slave-trading contract.

Through an asiento, a trade relationship was established whereby a set of traders was given a monopoly over that route and/or product.

The island Cádiz by Blaeu in 1662.

Telkom is a semi-privatised, part state-owned South African telecommunications company.

The period 1900–1910 was fertile for the development, by writers such as

Recent legislation passed by the South African government have lowered many restrictions on companies wishing to provide telecommunication access in the Republic.

In the U.S. the new trend of science fiction away from gadgets and space opera and toward speculation about the human condition

However, despite the pending switch to digital, analog television remains being transmitted in most countries. An exception is the United States that ended analog television transmission (by all but the very low-power TV stations) on 12 June 2009 after twice delaying the switchover deadline. For analog television, there are three standards in use for broadcasting color TV (see a map on adoption here).

Wafer-scale integration (WSI) is a means of building very large integrated circuits that uses an entire silicon wafer to produce a single "super-chip".

Upper interconnect layers on an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor die

A novella is a written, fictional, prose narrative normally longer than a short story but shorter than a novel.

The vast majority of the cost of fabrication (typically 30%-50%)

The prolific Indian author of short stories Munshi Premchand, pioneered the genre in the Hindustani language, writing a substantial body of short stories and novels in a style characterized by realism and an unsentimental and authentic introspection into the complexities of Indian society.

Intel's first 32-bit microprocessor was the iAPX 432, which was introduced in 1981 but was not a commercial success.

These properties and features resulted in a hardware and microcode design that was more complex than most processors of the era, especially microprocessors. However, internal and external buses were (mostly) not wider than 16-bit, and 32-bit arithmetical instructions were implemented by a 16-bit ALU, via microcode or logic, just like in other 32-bit microprocessors of the era (such as the 68000 or 32016).

A CPU that uses microcode generally takes several clock cycles to execute a single instruction, one clock cycle for each step in the microprogram for that instruction. Some CISC processors include instructions that can take a very long time to execute.

An American Megatrends BIOS showing a "Intel CPU uCode Loading Error" after a failed attempt to upload microcode patches into the CPU.

Dhanpat Rai first wrote under the pseudonym "Nawab Rai". His first short novel was Asrar e Ma'abid (Devasthan Rahasya in Hindi, "The Mystery of God's Abode"), which explores corruption among the temple priests and their sexual exploitation of poor women.

A mahant /məˈhʌnt/ is a religious superior, in particular the chief priest of a temple or the head of a monastery. The Hindi word mahant is from Prakrit mahanta-, from Sanskrit mahat "great". Other titles for the word Mahant, serving in the context of a well known religious place, include priest or pundit, being generally always a Brahmin, gyani, or pastor.

Transistors for logic, PLAs, and microcode are no longer scarce resources; only large high-speed cache memories are limited by the maximum number of transistors today. Although complex, the transistor count of CISC decoders do not grow exponentially like the total number of transistors per processor (the majority typically used for caches). Together with better tools and enhanced technologies, this has led to new implementations of highly encoded and variable length designs without load-store limitations (i.e. non-RISC). This governs re-implementations of older architectures such as the ubiquitous x86 (see below) as well as new designs for microcontrollers for embedded systems, and similar uses.

A microcontroller can be considered a self-contained system with a processor, memory and peripherals and can be used as an embedded system. The majority of microcontrollers in use today are embedded in other machinery, such as automobiles, telephones, appliances, and peripherals for computer systems.

2 ATmega microcontrollers

Sanskrit exerts great influence on languages of India that grew from its vocabulary and grammatical base; for instance, Hindi is a "Sanskritised register" of the Khariboli dialect.

It is also known as Khari Boli or simply Khari. Khariboli is the prestige dialect of Hindustani, of which Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu are standard registers and literary styles. Standard Hindi and Urdu are the principal official languages of India and Pakistan respectively. However, the term has been used for any literary dialect, including Braj Bhasa and Awadhi.

Many GPS receivers can relay position data to a PC or other device using the NMEA 0183 protocol.

A sample file produced by a Tripmate 850 GPS logger. This file was produced in Leixlip, County Kildare, Ireland.

Urdu has become a literary language only in recent centuries, as Persian was formerly the idiom of choice for the Muslim courts of North India.

Kildare was shired in 1297 and assumed its present borders in 1832, following amendments to remove a number of enclaves and exclaves.

Normal declarative sentences are structured as "(S) (PP) (O) V". This means sentences can comprise optional subjects, prepositional phrases, and objects, followed by a required verb.

As of 2013 six of the original eight Shires of Virginia are considered to be still extant whilst two have consolidated with a neighbouring city.

The historic counties of England — red indicates "-shire" counties, orange indicates where the "-shire" suffix is occasionally used

In the first sentence, all three criteria combine to identify Tom as the subject. In the second sentence, which involves the subject-auxiliary inversion of a yes/no-question, the subject immediately follows the finite verb (instead of immediately preceding it), which means the second criterion is flouted.

The eight Shires of Virginia were formed in 1634 in the Virginia Colony.

There are certain sentence patterns in English in which subject–verb inversion takes place where the verb is not restricted to an auxiliary verb. Here the subject may invert with certain main verbs, e.g. After the pleasure comes the pain, or with a chain of verbs, e.g. In the box will be a bottle. These are described in the article on subject-verb inversion.

However, Jamestown was spared from destruction due to a Virginia Indian boy named Chanco who, after learning of the planned attacks from his brother, gave warning to colonist Richard Pace with whom he lived.

Chanco is a name traditionally assigned to an Indian who is said to have warned a Jamestown colonist, Richard Pace, about an impending Powhatan attack in 1622.

Further, the flexibility across sentence b and sentence c demonstrates that there is some freedom of word order in the post-verb domain. This freedom is consistent with an analysis in terms of rightwards shifting of the subject, where heavier constituents tend to follow lighter ones.

The example sentences above all have the shifted constituents appearing after their head (see below).

When the statehouse burned again in 1698, this time accidentally, the legislature again temporarily relocated to Middle Plantation, and was able to meet in the new facilities of the College of William and Mary, which had been established after receiving a royal charter in 1693.

It is also common to classify language morphology according to whether a phrase is head-marking or dependent-marking.

Lexical morphology is the branch of morphology that deals with the lexicon, which, morphologically conceived, is the collection of lexemes in a language.

Linguistic theories generally regard human languages as consisting of two parts: a lexicon, essentially a catalogue of a language's words (its wordstock); and a grammar, a system of rules which allow for the combination of those words into meaningful sentences.

On July 25, 2012, Eastern Virginia Medical School (EVMS), in nearby Norfolk, VA made a joint announcement with The College that the two schools are considering merging so that EVMS would become the William & Mary School of Medicine.

In 1643 there appeared Ivan Uzhevych's Grammatica sclavonica and, in 1762, the Short Introduction to English Grammar of Robert Lowth was also published.

Very little is known about his biography: From 1637 he studied at Cracow University, then in 1643 he was a student of theology at the Sorbonne, writing is indicated on the cover page.

The first chancellor of the University was Piotr Wysz, and the first professors were Czechs, Germans and Poles, many of them trained at the Charles University in Prague in Bohemia.

The Virginia Opera was founded in Norfolk in 1974.

Piotr Wysz Radoliński of Leszczyc coat of arms was born circa 1354 in Radolin and died on September 30, 1414 in Poznań.

The company's first three seasons were limited to Norfolk. Expansion to Richmond began in 1977 with the encouragement of then-Governor Mills Godwin and Mrs. T. Fleetwood (Anna) Garner, under whose leadership "The Richmond Friends of Opera" was formed to present Virginia Opera productions annually in Richmond. By 1983, the Richmond and Central Virginia Board of Virginia Opera was formed and a Richmond office was opened. In November 1992, the company presented its first mainstage performance at the Center for the Arts at George Mason University in Fairfax. This development was hailed as "one of the major local operatic events of the year"

Leszczyc (Bróg, Brożek, Brożyna, Laska, Laski, Wyszowie), herb szlachecki - is a Polish Coat of Arms.

The third spirit, the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come, shows Scrooge Christmas Day one year later.

One side-effect of this unique arrangement was that it became customary to refer to noblemen by both their family name and their coat of arms name (or clan name). For example: Jan Zamoyski herbu Jelita means "Jan Zamoyski of the Jelita coat of arms" (though it is often translated as "of the clan Jelita" or herbu is Latinized de armis).

The Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come, also known as The Ghost of Christmas Future, or sometimes just Christmas Future, is a fictional character in English novelist Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol.

The 1990s saw a return to classic "gothic" ghosts, whose dangers were more psychological than physical. Examples of films from this period include 1999's The Sixth Sense and The Others.

A leaf from the "Łaski's Statute" depicting the Polish Senate.

Grace Stewart (Nicole Kidman) is a devout Roman Catholic mother who lives with her two small children in a remote country house in the British Crown Dependency of Jersey, in the immediate aftermath of World War II.

The Polish nobility enjoyed many rights that were not available to the noble classes of other countries and, typically, each new monarch conceded them further privileges. Those privileges became the basis of the Golden Liberty in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

The political doctrine of the Commonwealth of the Two Nations was: "our state is a republic under the presidency of the King". Chancellor Jan Zamoyski summed up this doctrine when he said that "Rex regnat et non gubernat" ("The King reigns but does not govern")

Among their other responsibilities were the matters of foreign affairs (correspondence with other countries) and to a smaller extent, the internal affairs, as they had also judiciary powers, presiding over the 'assessors' courts' (Polish: Asesoria), that were the highest appeal courts for people subjected to crown laws (i.e.

Hugo Kołłątaj (1750–1812), Deputy Chancellor, and co-author of the Constitution of 3 May 1791

The main concept of absolute advantage is generally attributed to Adam Smith for his 1776 publication An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations in which he countered mercantilist ideas. Smith argued that it was impossible for all nations to become rich simultaneously by following mercantilism because the export of one nation is another nation’s import and instead stated that all nations would gain simultaneously if they practiced free trade and specialized in accordance with their absolute advantage. Smith also stated that the wealth of nations depends upon the goods and services available to their citizens, rather than their gold reserves. While there are possible gains from trade with absolute advantage, the gains may not be mutually beneficial.

While many nations applied the theory, one exemplar was France, economically the most important state in Europe at the time. King Louis XIV followed the guidance of Jean Baptiste Colbert, his controller general of finances (1662–83).

In order to tell the wives of the various Princes of Conti apart after their deaths, the widows were given the name of Douairière or dowager and a number corresponding to when they lost their husband.

Heraldic crown of a Prince du Sang.

In the United Kingdom, the widow of a peer may continue to use the style she had during her husband's lifetime, e.g.

In 2003, Kidman received a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

In France, the system of pairies (peerage) existed in two different versions: the exclusive 'old' in the French kingdom, in many respects an inspiration for the English/British practice, and the very prolific chambre des pairs of the Bourbon Restoration (1814–1848).

At the outset comprising only hereditary peers and certain prelates of the church, the Chamber became a body to which men were appointed for life following the July Revolution of 1830.

Talleyrand proposed that Europe be restored to its "legitimate" (i.e. pre-Napoleon) borders and governments; a plan that, with some changes, was accepted by members of the Congress. France returned to its 1789 borders and the House of Bourbon, deposed by the Revolution, was restored to the throne. The Congress however forced Louis to grant the Charte constitutionnelle française, the French Constitution otherwise known as La Charte.

In June 1925, Phonofilm opened its first Australian office at 129 Bathurst Street in Sydney.

The Charter was presented as a gift from the King to the people, not as a constituent act of the people. It ended with the words "Given at Paris, in the year of grace 1814, and of our reign the nineteenth", this commitment to the principles of 'legitimism' would put the reign of Louis XVIII beginning in June 1795, after the death of Louis XVII, the youngest son of Louis XVIII's brother Louis XVI.

Sydney spans two geographic regions. The Cumberland Plain lies to the south and west of the Harbour and is relatively flat.

Robespierre visited Marie-Thérèse on 11 May, but no one, according to the legend, entered the dauphin's room for six months until Barras visited the prison after the 9th Thermidor (27 July 1794).

Cumberland Plain communities are protected in a number of council reserves, plus the Lower Prospect Canal Reserve, Scheyville National Park, Windsor Downs Nature Reserve, Leacock Regional Park and Mulgoa Nature Reserve and Mount Annan Botanic Garden.

Since he had amassed a large fortune, Barras spent his later years in luxury. Napoleon had him confined to the Château de Grosbois (Barras' property), then exiled to Brussels and Rome, and ultimately, in 1810, interned in Montpellier; set free after the fall of the Empire, he died in Chaillot (nowadays in Paris), and was interred in Père Lachaise Cemetery.

James Gillray's caricature of 1805. Barras being entertained by the naked dancing of two wives of prominent men, Thérésa Tallien and Joséphine Bonaparte. On the right, Napoleon Bonaparte takes a peek.

Later, it became dairy pasture land, before the land was acquired by the Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust in 1984 and The Garden was opened to the public in 1988 by the Duchess of York, Sarah Ferguson.

Spain used up the soldiers needed for Napoleon's other fields of battle, and they had to be replaced by conscripts. Spanish resistance affected Austria, and indicated the potential of national resistance. The provocations of Talleyrand and Britain strengthened the idea that Austrians could emulate the Spaniards. On April 10, 1809, Austria invaded France's ally, Bavaria. The campaign of 1809, however, would not be nearly as long and troublesome for France as the Spanish one. After a short and decisive action in Bavaria, Napoleon opened up the road to Vienna for a second time.

Sarah attended Daneshill School, Stratfield Turgis and then Hurst Lodge School, Ascot. After finishing a course at Queen's Secretarial College at the age of eighteen, Sarah went to work in a public relations firm in London.

Continuing the school's long tradition of teaching the performing arts, all pupils take dance classes. Girls are divided into three houses (Stainer, Fonteyn, and De Valois, all named after dancers), whose members compete for the House Cup.

During the latter half of the 19th century, the city developed what had previously been the bastions and glacis into the Ringstraße, a new boulevard surrounding the historical town and a major prestige project.

In the movie Tales from the Crypt: Demon Knight, the film takes place in a boarding house.

Bed and breakfast was more or less a direct import from the British style B&B. The B&B isn't evenly spread over the country, most are in southern province of Skåne or near one of the three larger cites, Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö.

A gun mantlet is an armour plate or shield attached to an armoured fighting vehicle's gun, protecting the opening through which the weapon's barrel projects from the hull or turret armour and, in many cases, ensuring the vulnerable warhead of a loaded shell does not protrude past the vehicle's armour.

Gun mantlet, highlighted in red, mounted to a tank's main gun (American M1A1 Abrams)

During the First World War, shrapnel shells and explosive shells inflicted terrible casualties on infantry, accounting for nearly 70% of all war casualties and leading to the adoption of steel helmets on both sides.

The oldest building in Stockholm is the Riddarholmskyrkan from the late 13th century.

The Riddarholm Church (Swedish: Riddarholmskyrkan) is the burial church of the Swedish monarchs.

Riddarholmskyrkan, early 20th century.

Exhumation of human remains occur for a number of reasons unrelated to the burial location, including identification of the deceased or as part of a criminal investigation. If an individual dies in suspicious circumstances, the police may request exhumation in order to determine the cause of death.

In Britain, in 1914, the Public Schools Officers' Training Corps annual camp was held at Tidworth Pennings, near Salisbury Plain.

In 1863, the Metropolitan Police were issued with the distinctive Custodian helmet, and in 1884 they switched to the use of whistles that could be heard from much further away. The Metropolitan Police became a model for the police forces in most countries, such as the United States, and most of the British Empire.

On 1 April 1948 a general re-organisation took place under which the Corps became part of the Territorial Army.

The 16th Airborne Division, a totally TA formation, was also raised at this time, under the command of Major-General Roy Urquhart.

It was raised in 1947, to compensate for the loss of the 1st Airborne Division, which had been disbanded in 1945 and the 6th Airborne Division which was to be disbanded in 1948.

Operation Freshman was the first British airborne operation conducted using gliders, its target was the Vemork Norsk Hydro chemical plant in Norway, which produced heavy water for Nazi Germany. By 1942 the German atomic weapons programme had come close to being able to develop a nuclear reactor, but in order for the reactor to function it would require a great deal of heavy water.

In 2000, Hydro acquired Wells Aluminum, a network of aluminium extrusion plants in the United States. Two years later, the company acquired the leading German aluminium producer Vereinigte Aluminium Werke from the German utility company E.ON and the French building systems company Technal.

Technal is a brand of Hydro, the Norwegian group whose business focuses on aluminum and natural resources. Part of Hydro’s Building Systems division, Technal is present in Europe, Latin America, South Africa. It is engaged in the development, manufacturing and marketing of aluminum glazing systems for commercial, public and residential buildings.

The Norwegian cinema has received more international recognition since the late 20th century. The documentary film Kon-Tiki (1950) of the expedition won an American Oscar Academy Award.

Reine in Lofoten, Northern Norway

As music was an important component to the plot, various songs were used during different parts of the film, such as Bruce Springsteen's "Out In The Street" and "Drive All Night", "Simple Man" by Graham Nash, and a few songs by The Who, including the titular "Love, Reign o'er Me".

Nash appeared on the season 7 finale of American Idol singing 'Teach Your Children' with Brooke White.

Kon-Tiki is a Norwegian documentary about the Kon-Tiki expedition led by Norwegian explorer and writer Thor Heyerdahl in 1947, released in Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Denmark in 1950, followed by the United States in 1951.

White was in the bottom three three times, once on April 2 after performing Dolly Parton's song "Jolene", again on April 16 after performing Mariah Carey's "Hero", and when she was eliminated on April 30, 2008 after performing "I'm a Believer" and "I Am...I Said".

Others include Pentecostals (39,600), the Evangelical Lutheran Free Church of Norway (19,600), Methodists (11,000), Baptists (9,900), Orthodox (9,900), Brunstad Christian Church (6,800), Adventists (5,100), Assyrians and Chaldeans, and others.

Norwegian lowland landscape near the Gaulosen branch of Trondheimsfjord

The song received mixed reviews by contemporary music critics for its lyrical content, while Carey's vocal performance was praised. Aside from its lyrics, "Hero" derived its hook and sound from several musical instruments such as the guitar, piano and organ. The song experienced strong success in several international markets, and also became Carey's eighth chart topper on the Billboard Hot 100.

From the 1950s, the church began to spread throughout Western Europe, most notably in Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands, after several church leaders were invited to participate in the Pentecostal conferences held at Leonberg during the 1950s.

Johan O. Smith

Extended play (EP) releases were listed by Billboard on the Hot 100 and in pre-Hot 100 charts (Top 100) until the mid-to-late 1960s.

In the 1960s and 1970s, record companies released EP versions of long play (LP) albums for use in jukeboxes.

Coin-operated music boxes and player pianos were the first forms of automated coin-operated musical devices.

Electronica composer Aphex Twin created a piece called Nannou by sampling a music box.

Of economic importance is BrabantStad, a partnership between the municipalities of Breda, Eindhoven, Helmond, 's-Hertogenbosch and Tilburg and the province of North Brabant.

In addition to Rephlex, James has released Aphex Twin records on Warp, R&S, Sire, Mighty Force, Rabbit City and Men Records.

ASML’s corporate headquarters is in Veldhoven, Netherlands.

The label was founded in 1966 as Sire Productions by Seymour Stein and Richard Gottehrer, each investing ten thousand dollars into the new company. Its early releases, in 1968, were distributed by London Records.

Richard Gottehrer graduated from Taft High School. He pursued a B.A. in History at Adelphi University, and spent one year at Brooklyn Law School before leaving to pursue a career in the music industry.

East Brabantian (Dutch: Oost Noord-Brabants or Oost Brabants) is one of the main divisions of the Brabantian dialect groups which the Woordenboek van de Brabantse Dialecten recognizes.

Successful artists will usually employ a road crew: a semi-permanent touring organization that travels with the artist.

The first attempts on standardizing the Dutch language in the 1540s were based on the Brabantian dialect, specifically that of Antwerp and its surroundings. However, following the Dutch Revolt, the Dutch economical and political focus shifted North, centering on the County of Holland and the importance of Brabantian dwindled.

The road crew are generally uncredited, though many bands take care to thank their crew in album sleeve liner notes.

The States General of the Netherlands signed the Act of Abjuration, deposing Philip as Count of Holland and forming a confederation between the seven liberated provinces.

Count Willem II of Holland Granting Privileges by Caesar van Everdingen and Pieter Post, 1654.

Liner notes sometimes provide metadata that can help when cataloguing private or public collections of sound recordings.

Many magistrates refused to take the new oath and preferred to resign from their offices. The Act therefore had the consequence of bringing about a wholesale change in the political makeup of many rebellious cities in the Netherlands, strengthening the radicals. Philip, of course, did not recognize the Act, nor the sovereignty of the Duke of Anjou. The Duke himself was not satisfied with his limited powers and he made an attempt to subjugate a number of cities, including Antwerp, in what became known as the French Fury.

The "French Fury" was a failed attempt by Francis, Duke of Anjou, to conquer the city of Antwerp by surprise on January 17, 1583.

Metadata is "information about information" and it is one of the really useful features of digital audio files. When audio went from analogue to digital, it became possible to label or encode audio files with more information than could be contained in just the file name.

In 1576, he negotiated the Edict of Beaulieu during the French Wars of Religion.

Magnetic tape enabled the development of the first practical commercial sound systems that could record and reproduce high-fidelity stereophonic sound.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.

In 1952, Emory Cook (1913–2002), who already had become famous by designing new feedback disk-cutter heads to improve sound from tape to vinyl, took the two-channel high-fidelity system described above and developed a somewhat misnamed "binaural" record out of it, which consisted of the same two separate channels cut into two separate groups of grooves running next to each other as described above, i.e.

Newton's own copy of his Principia, with hand-written corrections for the second edition

Another dimension of the theoretical debate in contract is its place within, and relationship to a wider law of obligations.

During this decade, the corporation began to sell off a number of its operational divisions to private owners; BBC Broadcast was spun off as a separate company in 2002, and in 2005 it was sold off to Australian-based Macquarie Capital Alliance Group and Macquarie Bank Limited and rebranded Red Bee Media. The BBC's IT, telephony and broadcast technology were brought together as BBC Technology Ltd in 2001, and the division was later sold to the German engineering and electronics company Siemens IT Solutions and Services (SIS). SIS was subsequently acquired from Siemens by the French company Atos. Further divestments in this decade included BBC Books (sold to Random House in 2006); BBC Outside Broadcasts Ltd (sold in 2008 to Satellite Information Services); Costumes and Wigs (sold in 2008 to Angels The Costumiers); and BBC Magazines (sold to Immediate Media Company in 2011). After the sales of OBs and costumes, the remainder of BBC Resources was reorganised as BBC Studios and Post Production, which continues today as a wholly owned subsidiary of the BBC.

Obligations did not originally form part of Roman Law, which mostly concerned issues of succession, property, and family relationships.

Another component that made up Immediate was Magicalia Limited, a digital cross-media publisher and platform provider, based in London, England. In late 2011 the assets of Magicalia were combined with those of Origin Publishing and BBC Magazines to form Immediate.

The practical application of Roman law and the era of the European Ius Commune came to an end, when national codifications were made. In 1804, the French civil code came into force.

Within the book publishing industry, the publisher of record for a book is the entity in whose name the book's ISBN is registered.

Pakistan: The National Library of Pakistan is responsible for ISBN registrations for Pakistani publishers, authors, universities, institutions, and government departments that are responsible for publishing books.

The French Revolution's Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen had declared that suspects were presumed to be innocent until they had been declared guilty by a court.

Trial courts are courts that hold trials.

A criminal trial is designed to resolve accusations brought (usually by a government) against a person accused of a crime.

The Crystal Cathedral is a built in a modern style with panels of glass set in metal frames making both the walls and roof. A tall tower of the same materials rises beside it

The Crystal Cathedral, California, by Philip Johnson (1980)

A murder, defined broadly, is an unlawful killing. Unlawful killing is probably the act most frequently targeted by the criminal law. In many jurisdictions, the crime of murder is divided into various gradations of severity, e.g., murder in the first degree, based on intent.

The Old Bailey in London (in 1808) was the venue for more than 100,000 criminal trials between 1674 and 1834, including all death penalty cases.

Passive solar technologies include direct and indirect solar gain for space heating, solar water heating systems based on the thermosiphon or geyser pump, use of thermal mass and phase-change materials for slowing indoor air temperature swings, solar cookers, the solar chimney for enhancing natural ventilation, and earth sheltering.

Otherwise, one government entity will have exclusive jurisdiction over the shared area. When jurisdiction is concurrent, one governmental entity may have supreme jurisdiction over the other entity if their laws conflict. If the executive or legislative powers within the jurisdiction are not restricted or restricted only by a number of limited restrictions, these government branches have plenary power such as a national policing power.

In United States constitutional law, police power is the capacity of the

They have been used since the late 19th century as a medium for the thermal storage applications.

Early in its history, in Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803) and Fletcher v. Peck, 10 U.S. 87 (1810), the Supreme Court of the United States declared that the judicial power granted to it by Article III of the United States Constitution included the power of judicial review, to consider challenges to the constitutionality of a State or Federal law.

Molten salt is a means of storing heat at a high temperature.

Ambient temperature molten salts are present in the liquid phase at standard conditions for temperature and pressure.

The Court currently has six male and three female justices. One justice is African American, one is Latino, and two are Italian-Americans; six justices are Roman Catholics, and three are Jewish. The average age is 69 years, 1 month, and every current justice has an Ivy League background. Four justices are from the state of New York, two from New Jersey, two from California, and one from Georgia.

From the 1860s until the 1930s, the court sat in the Old Senate Chamber of the U.S. Capitol.

Due to the fact that many definitions of standard temperature and pressure differ in temperature significantly from standard laboratory temperatures (e.g., 0 °C vs. ~25 °C), reference is often made to "standard laboratory conditions" (a term deliberately chosen to be different from the term "standard conditions for temperature and pressure", despite its semantic near identity when interpreted literally). However, what is a "standard" laboratory temperature and pressure is inevitably culture-bound, given that different parts of the world differ in climate, altitude and the degree of use of heat/cooling in the workplace.

Inspections and audits like also be conducted on a regular basis to assess hazards due to chemical handling and storage, electrical equipment, biohazards, hazardous waste management, chemical waste, housekeeping and emergency preparedness, radiation safety, ventilation as well as respiratory testing and indoor air quality.

Collaboration between the member schools is illustrated by the student-led Ivy Council that meets in the fall and spring of each year, with representatives from every Ivy League school.

Ivy Leadership Summit (ILS) is an annual two-day conference hosted by the Ivy Council to bring together students from the eight Ivy League universities along with leaders from the business, government, academics, and non-profit sectors of society.

Dosimeters are devices worn by the user which measure the absorbed dose the user receives.

The first known instance of the term Ivy League being used appeared in The Christian Science Monitor on February 7, 1935. Several sportswriters and other journalists used the term shortly later to refer to the older colleges, those along the northeastern seaboard of the United States, chiefly the nine institutions with origins dating from the colonial era, together with the United States Military Academy (West Point), the United States Naval Academy, and a few others.

Robinson Hall at Brown, built 1878

A radiation dosimeter is a device that measures exposure to ionizing radiation.

Cosmic rays and the decay of radioactive isotopes are the primary sources of natural ionizing radiation on Earth referred to as background radiation.

Non-civilian: In addition to the civilian accidents described above, several accidents at early nuclear weapons facilities - such as the Windscale fire, the contamination of the Techa River by the nuclear waste from the Mayak compound, and the Kyshtym disaster at the same compound - released substantial radioactivity into the environment.

Iset River is a river that flows in Sverdlovsk, in Russia.

In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, thus starting the Space Age.

Sputnik 1 was launched during the International Geophysical Year from Site No.1/5, at the 5th Tyuratam range, in Kazakh SSR (now at the Baikonur Cosmodrome).

Soviet 40 kopeks stamp, showing satellite's orbit

Gagarin's Start (Russian: Гагаринский старт, Gagarinskij start) is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, used for the Soviet space program and now managed by the Russian Federal Space Agency.

After the first Sputnik proved to be a successful propaganda coup, Korolyov—now known publicly only as the mysterious "Chief Designer of Rocket-Space Systems":168–169—was charged to accelerate the manned program, the design of which was combined with the Zenit program to produce the Vostok spacecraft.

The successful launch of Sputnik 1 and the subsequent failure of the first two Project Vanguard launch attempts greatly accentuated the perception in the United States of a threat from the Soviet Union, a perception that had persisted since the Cold War began after World War II.

Despite being overshadowed by Sputnik, and having to overcome the widespread humiliation of its unsuccessful early attempts, the Vanguard Project eventually met its scientific objectives, providing a wealth of information on the size and shape of the Earth, air density, temperature ranges, and micrometeorite impact.

Vanguard rocket explodes seconds after launch at Cape Canaveral (December 6, 1957).

Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years.

On 3 February 2006, Galloway was refused entry into Egypt at Cairo Airport and was detained "on grounds of national security," where he had been invited to 'give evidence' at a 'mock trial' of Bush and Blair.

The New Kingdom c.

Beneath the Earth's crust lies the mantle which is heated by the radioactive decay of heavy elements.

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet or natural satellite, which is chemically distinct from the underlying mantle.

Towards the end of the 18th Dynasty, the situation had changed radically. Aided by Akhenaten's apparent lack of interest in international affairs, the Hittites had gradually extended their influence into Phoenicia and Canaan to become a major power in international politics—a power that both Seti I and his son Ramesses II would need to deal with during the 19th dynasty.

Petrologists can also use fluid inclusion data and perform high temperature and pressure physical experiments to understand the temperatures and pressures at which different mineral phases appear, and how they change through igneous and metamorphic processes.

In 2011, Jacobus van Dijk questioned the "Year 11" stated on the Gebel Barkal stela.

Santosh, M., Omori, S., CO2 windows from mantle to atmosphere: Models on ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism and speculations on the link with melting of snowball Earth. Gondwana Research 14, in press, doi:10.1016/j.gr.2007.11.001, 2008.

This 84-million-year-old air bubble lies trapped in amber (fossilized tree sap). Using a quadrupole mass spectrometer, scientists can learn what the atmosphere was like when the dinosaurs roamed the earth. Source: USGS

The Flaminio Obelisk (Italian: Obelisco Flaminio) is one of the thirteen ancient obelisks in Rome, Italy.

DOI name resolution is provided through the Handle System, developed by Corporation for National Research Initiatives, and is freely available to any user encountering a DOI name.

Fears in the Italian electorate of a possible Communist takeover proved crucial for the first universal suffrage electoral outcome on 18 April 1948, when the Christian Democrats, under the leadership of Alcide De Gasperi, obtained a landslide victory.

As Mussolini's hold on the Italian government grew stronger, he soon diverged with the Fascists over constitutional changes to the powers of the executive and to the election system (the Acerbo Law), and to Fascist violence against the constitutional parties, culminating in the murder of Giacomo Matteotti.

In South Africa, charities issue a tax certificate when requested by donors which can be used as a tax deduction by the donor. Non Profit Organisations are registered under the Non Profit Organisation Act.

The former socialist and anti-fascist journalist Carlo Silvestri in 1924 was a harsh accuser of Mussolini; later, when he joined Italian Social Republic, he affirmed that Mussolini showed him Matteotti Case's papers, and eventually he changed his mind. Silvestri became a strong defender of Mussolini's innocence in Matteotti's murder, and suggested that the socialist was killed by a plot, in order both to damage Mussolini's attempt to raise a leftist government (with the participation of Socialists and Popolari) and to cover some scandals in which the Crown (with the American oil company Sinclair Oil) was involved.

The National Republican Air Force (Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana or ANR) was the air force of Italian Social Republic and also the air unit of National Republican Army in World War II.

Combat operations began in December 1943, leading, in the following January, to the attack performed by the 1st Squadriglia "Asso di Bastoni", against a formation of US P-38 Lightnings, three of which were shot down.

Fuselage and tail flag of the A.N.R. used from October 1943 to May 1945.

Unlike some of the Nguni languages, Tsonga has very few words with click consonants, and these vary in place between dental and postalveolar.

Geographical distribution of Xitsonga in South Africa: density of Xitsonga home-language speakers.   <1 /km²   1–3 /km²   3–10 /km²   10–30 /km²   30–100 /km²   100–300 /km²   300–1000 /km²   1000–3000 /km²   >3000 /km²

The first unit to receive P-38s was the 1st Fighter Group.

Xitsonga, like many other African languages, have been influenced by various European colonial languages. Xitsonga includes words borrowed from English, Afrikaans, and Portuguese.

From 10 to 21 August 1944, the 94th Fighter Squadron deployed sixty Lightnings to Aghione, Corsica, providing air support for the Allied invasion of Southern France.

C. P. Hoogehout, Arnoldus Pannevis, and Stephanus Jacobus du Toit were the first Afrikaans Bible translators.

German 88 mm gun on the coast in southern France

He was born in 1847 near Paarl in the Cape Colony at Plaas Kleinbos, a farm that had been in the family's possession since their arrival in the Cape as Hugenot refugees in 1688.

While not, perhaps, a variant, a field modification was developed by US Rangers with assistance from LCA crews and Commandos, for the famous Pointe du Hoc assault of 6 June 1944. Each of the 10 LCAs of Flotillas 510 and 522 which carried the 2nd Ranger Battalion to Pointe du Hoc was fitted with 3 pairs of rocket tubes, firing six-tine grapnels. These pulled up (by pairs) ¾” plain ropes, toggle ropes, and rope ladders. The ropes and ladders were stowed in three large tackle boxes mounted down either side of the LCA decks and the rocket tubes were positioned down either side behind the corresponding boxes. In addition, each craft carried a pair of small hand-projector-type rockets, which could be easily carried ashore and fired small 100 ft ropes.

American troops unload stores from LCA 26 at Beach Z, near Arzeu

Primary tasks include: direct action, national and international emergency crisis response, airborne & air assault operations, special reconnaissance, intelligence & counter intelligence, combat search and rescue, personnel recovery & hostage rescue, joint special operations, and counter terrorism.

Montpellier was among the most important of the 66 "villes de sûreté" that the Edict of 1598 granted to the Huguenots.

Theology was at first taught in the convents, in which

More exotic secret information, such as encryption keys, diplomatic message traffic, policy and orders of battle are usually restricted to analysts on a need-to-know basis in order to protect the sources and methods from foreign traffic analysis.

The term is also used in the concept of graphical user interface design where computers are controlling complex equipment such as airplanes.

The PARC user interface consisted of graphical elements such as windows, menus, radio buttons, and check boxes.

A modern CLI.

In computing and telecommunications, a menu or menu bar is graphical control element.

During the 19th century the city developed into an industrial centre. In the 1960s, its population grew dramatically after French settlers in Algeria were resettled in the city following Algeria's independence from France.

The software industry includes businesses engaged in development, maintenance and publication of software.

The key software maintenance issues are both managerial and technical. Key management issues are: alignment with customer priorities, staffing, which organization does maintenance, estimating costs. Key technical issues are: limited understanding, impact analysis, testing, maintainability measurement.

Commercial tools in this area include Telelogic DOORS, and IBM Rational.

Telelogic had operations in 22 countries and had been publicly traded since 1999. On June 11, 2007, IBM announced that it had made a cash offer to acquire Telelogic. On August 29, 2007, the European Union opened an investigation into the acquisition.

Women operated in a number of different areas during the course of the rebellion. "Women participated actively as combatants, spies, fundraisers, as well as nurses, launderers, and cooks", "women assisted the male fighting forces in areas like transportation, communication and administration" the range of involvement by a woman could include both combatant and non-combatant roles. While most women's tasks were non-combatant, their less frequent, violent acts were more noticed. The reality was that "rural women in maquis rural areas support networks" contained the overwhelming majority of those who participated; female combatants were in the minority.

The Barossa Valley in South Australia is an area noted for vineyards

That a particular policy area falls into a certain category of competence is not necessarily indicative of what legislative procedure is used for enacting legislation within that policy area.

The Black Stork, an Annex A protected species under Regulation (EC) No. 338/97

This is a list of the districts of Germany.

The districts of Germany are known as German: Landkreise, except in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein where they are known simply as German: ''Kreise'' (singulars: Landkreis and Kreis).

The European Union adopts legislation through a variety of legislative procedures.

In Australia, the state of South Australia experienced a pronounced wave of immigration in the 1840s from Prussia (particularly the Silesia region).

The End.

In 1999 the currency union started, first as an accounting currency with eleven member states joining.

The End.