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Reasons for traveling include recreation, tourism or vacationing, research travel for the gathering of information, for holiday to visit people, volunteer travel for charity, migration to begin life somewhere else, religious pilgrimages and mission trips, business travel, trade, commuting, and other reasons, such as to obtain health care or fleeing war or for the enjoyment of traveling.
In Islam this is called Zakat, and is one of the five pillars upon which the Muslim religion is based, 2.5% of one's saving is to be given as Zakat per Islamic calendar year.
The Quran discusses charity in many verses, some of which relate to zakat. The word zakat, with the meaning used in Islam now, is found in suras: 7:156, 19:31, 19:55, 21:73, 23:4, 27:3, 30:39, 31:4 and 41:7. Zakat is found in the early Medinan suras and described as obligatory for Muslims. It is given for the sake of salvation.
Theodor Nöldeke's chronology is based on the assumption that the style of the Qur'an changes in one direction without reversals. Nöldeke studied the style and content of the chapters and assumed that (1) later (Madinan) chapters and verses and are generally shorter than earlier (Meccan) ones (2) Earlier Meccan verses have a distinct rhyming style while later verses are more prosaic (prose-like). According to Nöldeke earlier chapters have common features: many of them open with oaths in which God swears by cosmic phenomena, they have common themes (including eschatology, creation, piety, authentication of Muhammad's mission and refutation of the charges against Muhammad), and some Meccan chapters have a clear 'tripartite' structure (for example chapters 45, 37, 26, 15, 21).
Nöldeke died in Karlsruhe.
The library of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology developed the Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog, the first internet site that allowed researchers worldwide (for free) to search multiple library catalogues worldwide.
KIT is one of the leading universities in the Engineering and Natural Sciences in Europe, ranking sixth overall in citation impact. KIT is a member of the TU9 German Institutes of Technology e.V.
The mission of this organization is to act as contact for society, economy and politics, particularly for the university education of engineers. The members of TU9 mutually accredit their bachelor's and master's degrees and, therefore, support the progression of the Bologna process and quality assurance concerning university education of engineers.
The baccalauréat and the doctorat are unchanged in the new Bologna system, known in France as "LMD reform", but the DEUG and the old licence have been merged into a new, three-year Licence.